Cosmology & Galaxies

Course Web Site / Extended Syllabus

Syllabus: Short Version

Sections and Links

  1. Cosmology Course
    1. Cosmology Introduction
    2. Cosmology Lectures
  2. Galaxies Course
    1. Galaxies Introduction
    2. Galaxies Lectures
  3. Evaluation
  4. Grades posted by anonymous alias:
  5. Cosmology Articles: Significant/Useful Articles: See also arXiv-astro-ph/recent for the latest cosmology articles.
  6. Cahill 2017, tmpp.pdf, cosmic_a_fig1_gnu.pdf, cosmic_a_fig1_gnu_2019oct26.pdf, cosmic_a_fig2_gnu.pdf.
  7. Books & Reviews
  8. Course Resource Sites
  9. Astro Images
  10. Course Mottos
  11. Ken Lectures 2012 Fall
  12. University sites of interest
  13. Astro = Encyclopedia: Astronomy, Physics, Science, Technology, Etc.:
    Education Notes
    1. An Education Note on Bayesian Analysis

  1. Cosmology Course


    1. Cosmology Introduction

    2. This is the course website / extended syllabus for a course in cosmology.

      For nuts and bolts details of the course, see Syllabus: Short Version.

      There might be some changes since the course still in early development.

      The plan for the course is to cover a very easy intro cosmology book Liddle (2015) with some extensions. This allows us to build up from the bottom.

      You don't need to buy Liddle since you can read it online: Lied online.

      But we will also have journal club reports which makes us surf current reseach in cosmology. This allows us to build down from the top.

      We will never meet in the middle.

      The alternative is to grind through a solid textbook, but for non-specialists that would probably be unmemorable---and difficult for a non-specialist instructor.

      The daily plan is that yours truly will lecture following Liddle's chapters with extensions for 40 minutes or so.

      Then we will have 10 or minute break.

      Then we resume with the journal club reports for 25 or so minutes:

      1. Typically 1 or 2 students (or 1 student and the instructor) will read enough of some current cosmology article to report something of the main results. Just get enough from the article to report something that you find interesting. The reports is intended to be low anxiety and maximum fun. So we cycle through half the class every meeting.
      2. The person reports on his/her article for 15 minutes or so with discussion. It often goes longer and maybe only 1 person speaks per day.
      3. If you don't get a chance to talk some days because discussion dragged on or something, we just hold the report over the for next day.
      4. Yours truly keeps a list of cosmology from arXiv that seemed somehow interesting: see Cosmology Articles: Significant/Useful Articles. You can use that list or find your own article.
      5. I suggest that you try to find short review articles or especially hot articles and avoid quantum cosmology which is a really deep for us, unless quantum cosmology made easy.
      6. I'll just ask for volunteers on day for the next day.
      7. Since there are 5 students and 1 instructor and 30 lecture periods, we might each speak about 5 to 7 times or so, but there is no set number.
      8. Giving reports and participating discussion is 20 % of grade and everyone gets that with fair effort.


    3. Cosmology Lectures

    4. See temporary homework/solution file tmp.pdf.

      1. Cosmology 1: History of Cosmology: Homework 1, Solution 1
        Required reading: Lied online / Ebook / Liddle, Ch. 1, IAL 4: History of Astronomy to Newton (OK for what it is), IAL 26: The Discovery of Galaxies (OK for what it is), IAL 28: Galaxies (low-call and a bit dated), IAL 29: The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe (low-call and a bit dated), IAL 30: Cosmology.
        Yours truly is vastly extending on Liddle, Ch. 1. I leave this all as reading. It is all easy, mostly qualitative stuff. But it is still good to know it and it's traditional to start cosmology in the manner of Carl Sagan (1934--1996).
      2. Cosmos 2: Observational Overview and Other Stuff: Homework 2, Solution 2: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Lied online / Ebook / Liddle, Ch. 2, Liddle, Ch. 2. I leave this just as a reading. It is all easy, mostly qualitative stuff.
      3. Cosmos 3: The Friedmann Equation: Homework 3, Solution 3, Notes 3a: Old, Notes 3b: Old.
        Required reading: Lied online / Ebook / Liddle, Ch. 3.
      4. Cosmos 4: The Geometry of the Universe: Homework 4, Solution 4
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 4.
      5. Cosmos 5: Simple Cosmological Models: Homework 5, Solution 5, Notes 5: New.
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 5.
        Exam 1 solutions: Some questions have been corrected/improved since the test.
      6. Cosmos 6: Observational Parameters: Homework 6, Solution 6: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 6.
      7. Cosmos 7: The Cosmological Constant: Homework 7, Solution 7: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 7.
      8. Cosmos 8: The Age of the Universe: Homework 8, Solution 8:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 8.
      9. Cosmos 9: The Density of the Universe and Dark Matter: Homework 9, Solution 9:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 9.
      10. Cosmos 10: The Cosmic Microwave Background: Homework 10, Solution 10, Notes 10: New.
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 10.
        Final solutions: Some questions have been corrected/improved since the final.
      11. Cosmos 11: The Early Universe: Homework 11, Solution 11: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 11 / Liddle, Ch. 11: Direct link.
      12. Cosmos 12: Nucleosynthesis: The Origin of the Light Elements: Homework 12, Solution 12: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 12 / Liddle, Ch. 12: Direct link.
      13. Cosmos 13: The Inflationary Universe: Homework 13, Solution 13: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 13 / Liddle, Ch. 13: Direct link.
      14. Cosmos 14: The Initial Singularity: Homework 14, Solution 14: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 14 / Liddle, Ch. 14: Direct link.
      15. Cosmos 15: Overview: The Standard Model of Cosmology: Homework 15, Solution 15: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, Ch. 15 / Liddle, Ch. 15: Direct link.
      16. Cosmos 16: Structures in the Universe: Homework 16, Solution 16: which don't exist so far:
        Required reading: Liddle, AT 1-5: Also for completeness:
        1. Liddle, AT 1: Direct link: General Relativistic Cosmology.
        2. Liddle, AT 2: Direct link: Classic Cosmology: Distances and Luminosities.
        3. Liddle, AT 3: Direct link: Neutrino Cosmology.
        4. Liddle, AT 4: Direct link: Baryogenesis.
        5. Liddle, AT 5: Direct link: Structures in the Universe.
      17. Cosmos 17: Bayesian Analysis and Constraining Cosmological Models: Homework 17, Solution 17:
        Notes 17: New,Old.
        Required reading: Liddle, AT 6 / Liddle, AT 6: Direct link.
        Exam 1 solutions: Some questions have been corrected/improved since the test.


  2. Galaxies Course


    1. Galaxies Introduction

    2. The online official course description for Ast729: Galaxies:

    3. Galaxies Lectures


  3. Evaluation

  4. The evaluation summary is in the table below.

          __________________________________________________________________________
          Table:  Evaluations Items
          __________________________________________________________________________
          Item                  Percentage  Drops     Comment
                                 of grade
          __________________________________________________________________________
          Readings                 0 %                For study
          Homeworks                0 %                The study guide
          journal club reports    20 %      2 drops   1 mark point each
          2 in-class tests        40 %      no drops
          comprehensive final     40 %      no drops
          extra credit             0 %                There is NO extra credit
          __________________________________________________________________________
          
    Explication of evaluation items:

    1. Readings are NOT marked but you should do them.
    2. Homeworks are the study guide. The solutions will posted when the homeworks are posted. Yours truly is making them up as we go along. Try really hard before looking at the solutions. Self-testing is the key to test preparations. Report any mistakes that you find.
    3. Journal club reports: ∼ 10 reports. We'll try to get everyone to have the same number of reports, but allow 2 drops if the number reports is not quite the same at the end of the semester.
    4. The in-class tests will be out of 50 marks and consist of two parts:
      1. 10 multiple-choice questions intended as easy warm-up questions worth 2 marks each.
      2. 3 full-answer questions worth 10 marks each. Two of these will be drawn from the homeworks, maybe cut-down a bit for test mise-en-scene. The third question will be new if yours truly can think of one.
    5. The final is 2-hour comprehensive final and will probably be 20 multiple-choice questions intended as easy warm-up questions worth 2 marks each and 5 or so full-answer questions with 3 or 4 drawn from the homeworks, maybe cut-down a bit for test mise-en-scene.

    Yours truly does NOT use a fixed scale for letter grades. I just draw my own lines where I see fit at the end of the semester.

    Until the end of the semester, I just use a curve which fixes the GPA at about 3.

    I don't use WebCampus. I just post grades under anonymous aliases.

    You can choose your own alias. It has to be absolutely NOT identifiable as anyone.


  5. Books & Reviews

  6. See
    Amazon books, Library Search, and NASA ADS search.

    1. Coles, Peter; Lucchin, Francesco, 2002, 520 pages "Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure". About the level for a grad course, but a bit dated.
    2. Kunze, Kerstin, 2016, 36 pages "An introduction to cosmology".
    3. Leclercq, Florent, et al. 2014, 49 pages "Cosmology: from theory to data, from data to theory", Bayesian stats.
    4. Liddle, Andrew, 2015, An Introduction to Modern Cosmology, 200 pages: Level: 4th year or intro grad. Lied online. We can print from online. Are we allowed to print the whole thing over time? Maybe server will let us, but 40 pages per user is the legal limit. Can we use such printouts as a textbook for students? No, but we can reserve online for up to 3 users at a time.
    5. Mo, Houjun; van den Bosch, Frank; White, Simon, 2010, 840 pages "Galaxy Formation and Evolution". See also Mo et al. Not at Library Search. See also stuff, stuff by Mo, and Bosch advertizement. It has NO problems. See also
      1. Introduction to Galaxy Formation and Evolution: From Primordial Gas to Present-Day Galaxies, 2019, 582 pages, Andrea Cimatti (Author), Filippo Fraternali (Author), Carlo Nipoti (Author), Cambridge Univ. Pres. Ordered it 2022may13, more up-to-date, maybe just a bit less arduous, maybe problems.
      2. An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology, 2015, 450 pages, by Mark H. Jones (Editor), Robert J. A. Lambourne (Editor), Stephen Serjeant (Editor), Cambridge - Open University: More of undergraduate level and has problems.
    6. Ryden, Barbara, 2017, 300 pages 4th year, 1st edition well reviewed.
    7. Ta-Pei Cheng, 2010, 456 pages GR with some cosmology. Also Ta-Pei Cheng, 2015, 292 pages, "A College Course on Relativity and Cosmology".
    8. Weinberg, Steven, 2008, 616 pages Really tough going, but great. Lied online not.
    9. Universe in Problems:
      1. Solutions of Friedman equations in the Big Bang model: Problem 23: Positive-curvature-matter universe: Exact solution a(eta),t(eta), where eta is conformal time.
      2. Solutions of Friedman equations in the Big Bang model: Matter and radiation: Problem 5: exact solutions for matter and radiation: No analytic solutions for a(t), but there is one for t(a) using Hudson-5,28. See also INTEGRALS CONTAINING THE SQUARE ROOT OF ax+b.
      3. Solutions of Friedman equations in the Big Bang model: Problem 18: age of the Universe
      4. Solutions of Friedman equations in the Big Bang model: Problem 23: closed dusty Universe, exact solution: Closed matter cosine universe.
      5. Solutions of Friedman equations in the Big Bang model: Problem 41: power-law cosmologies: Single power-law solutions.
      6. Evolution of Universe: Problem 13: The Matter-Cosmological Constant Universe Solution: See also SOLUTION OF THE FRIEDMANN EQUATION DETERMINING THE TIME EVOLUTION, ACCELERATION AND THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE (2007), Frank Steiner, p. 12.


  7. Course Resource Sites

    1. See also arXiv-astro-ph/recent for the latest cosmology articles.
    2. arXiv-quant-ph/recent
    3. Astronomy My own online astro encyclopedia: no longer updated since Wikipedia has long surpassed it.
    4. Astrophysical Journal (ApJ)
    5. Books
      1. Coles & Lucchin: Cosmology
      2. Mo: Galaxy Formation and Evolution
      3. Peacock: Cosmological Physics
    6. Eddie Baron's galaxies and cosmology course site
    7. Introductory Astronomy Web Lectures (IAWL) See, in particular, IAL: Cosmology.
    8. Christian Knobel Intro Cosmolgy, 2012 An introduction into the theory of cosmological structure formation, 2012, 102 pages. Seems good, current as of 2012.
    9. Lawden 2002 special relativity: Preface, Chapters 1--3. A good, quick introduction.
    10. Max Pettini: Physcial Cosmology Seems a good quick intro in pdf lectures which are probably intended to be much like real lectures. Seems to be current as of 2012.
      1. Basic Concepts
      2. Newtonian Cosmology
      3. Relativistic Cosmology
      4. World Models
      5. Redshifts and Distances in Cosmology
      6. The Hubble Diagram of Type Ia Supernovae: Evidence for a Cosmological Constant
      7. Large Scale Structure
      8. Clusters of Galaxies: Spherical Collapse and Virialization
      9. The Intergalactic Medium On reionization and all that.
      10. Absorption Line Formation and the Curve of Growth
      11. Physical Properties of Lyman Alpha Forest Clouds
      12. Cosmological Implications of the Lyman Alpha Forest. I: The Repository of Most of the Baryons
      13. The Ionizing Background
      14. Gravitational Lensing
      15. Weak Gravitational Lensing
      16. Observational Tests of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
    11. Mermin 1968 special relativity: Wow your friends with special relativity paradoxes and solutions.
    12. NASA ADS
    13. Nature
    14. Physics Links Look-up pages mainly. Not updated recently.
    15. Sean Carroll Lecture Notes on General Relativity, 1997
    16. Science
    17. Scientific American The inner circle SciAm.
    18. Wikipedia
      1. physical cosmology


  8. Astro Images

    1. Alien mesmerized by words Alien mesmerized by words.


      But as Dorothy said, there's no place like home.

    2. Earthrise Earthrise from Apollo 11, 1969jul16. Credit: NASA.

    3. Alien consigning math to the flames Well not quite.

    4. Aliens and Grades Beware of aliens bearing grades.


  9. Course Mottos

  10. Don't Panic.
    This is so cool.
    Unchain your inner nerd.
    In science, we are slaves to the truth---only error can set us free.

    Very reassuring I think.



  11. Ken Lectures 2012 Fall

    1. Historical intro similar to cosmology:
      1. IAL 4: The History of Astronomy to Newton Essentially, the history of cosmology from prehistory to Isaac Newton (1643--1727) including Newton's work.
      2. IAL 26: The Discovery of Galaxies A partial history of cosmology from Isaac Newton (1643--1727) to the 1920s.
      3. IAL 31: Cosmology Gives a brief history of cosmology in the 20th century.
      4. Wikipedia
        1. Wikipedia: Chronology of the universe
        2. Wikipedia: Graphical timeline from Big Bang to Heat Death Note that the left-hand vertical scale is tricky, for greater than about > 0, it is x=100*log(log(t_year)) and so t_year=10**(10**(x/100))).
        3. Wikipedia: Graphical timeline of the Stelliferous Era Note the vertical axis is tricky, but it was it says, log(y) where y is the number of years and then multiply by 10. Thus 10**6 years is 10*log(10**6)=10*6=60. Gollee as Gomer Pyle would say.
        4. List of cosmologists Sean, Ron, Avi, Saul, Adam, Brian, and Dave Schramm made the list, but not Ken and Bob.
        5. Wikipedia: Timeline of cosmological theories
    2. Friedmann equations and Elementary Solutions, Parameters of Cosmology, Cosmological Distance Measures:
      1. Christian Knobel Intro Cosmolgy, 2012, p. 9ff But Knobel expects you to know some general relativity before you begin. Gory.
      2. David Jeffery: Cosmological Distance Measures Explained It needs a lot of revision that it will probably never get.
      3. David Hogg: Distance Measures in Cosmology See also the article version Hogg, 2000, Distance Measures in Cosmology.
      4. Max Pettini 1: Basic Concepts
      5. Max Pettini 2: Newtonian Cosmology He derives the Friedmann equations from Newtonian physics plus special assumptions.
      6. Max Pettini 3: Relativistic Cosmology
      7. Max Pettini 5: Redshifts and Distances in Cosmology
      8. Sean Carroll Lecture Notes on General Relativity, 1997, Lecture 8, Cosmology But this is the end of his lectures, and so they assume you know all intro general relativity.
      9. Wikipedia
        1. angular diameter distance
        2. cosmological constant
        3. cosmological distance measures See graphs Wesino z ≤ 0.5, Wesino z ≤ 10**4
        4. cosmological redshift
        5. density parameter
        6. Friedmann equations
        7. Hubble's law
        8. luminosity distance
    3. Cosmological horizons:
      1. Christian Knobel Intro Cosmolgy, 2012 Section 1.4.3 is on horizons.
      2. Max Pettini: Redshifts and Distances in Cosmology
      3. Wikipedia
        1. particle horizon
        2. event horizon of the universe
    4. Thermal history of the observable universe:
      1. Max Pettini: The Intergalactic Medium On reionization and all that.
      2. Max Pettini: Large Scale Structure It has some stuff on recombination
      3. Wikipedia
        1. chronology of the universe
        2. recombination
        3. reionization
    5. Inflation and Particle Physics in Cosmology:
      1. Pralavorio 2013 Particle Physics and Cosmology, Les Houches
      2. Silverstein 2013 Les Houches lectures on inflationary observables and string theory, Les Houches
      3. Wikipedia
        1. Wikipedia: Inflation
        2. particle physics in cosmology
    6. Cosmological Structure Formation:
      1. Christian Knobel Intro Cosmolgy, 2012, p. 55ff on general relativistic treatment of linear structure formation.
      2. Christian Knobel Intro Cosmolgy, 2012, p. 29ff on Newtonian .
      3. Frenk & White (2012), Dark matter and cosmic structure A review with a historical perspective from the giants.
      4. Max Pettini: Large Scale Structure It has some stuff on Jeans instability.
      5. Wikipedia
        1. cosmic structure formation
        2. Jeans instability
        3. Silk damping
    7. Power Spectrum:
      1. Wikipedia
        1. CMB: Primary anisotropy There is a angular power spectrum plot.
        2. linear structure formation
        3. nonlinear structure formation
    8. Nonlinear Structure Formation
      1. Bernardeau 2013 The evolution of the large-scale structure of the universe: beyond the linear regime, Les Houches.
      2. Tinker et al. (2008) Toward a Halo Mass Function for Precision Cosmology: The Limits of Universality.
      3. Wikipedia
        1. Nonlinear Structure Formation
    9. Press-Schecter Formalism
      1. Press & Schecter (1974)
      2. Wikipedia
        1. baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO)
        2. Press-Schecter Formalism
        3. structure formation
        4. William H. (Bill) Press (1948--)
        5. Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (1914--1987)
        6. Zeldovich pancake
    10. Galaxy Formation
      1. Coles & Lucchin, Ch16, p340ff
      2. Mo, p264ff
      3. Wikipedia
        1. Bremstrahlung (AKA free-free emission)
        2. galaxy cluster
        3. galaxy formation and evolution
        4. intracluster medium (ICM)
        5. intergalacit medium
        6. inverse Compton scattering
        7. large scale structure
    11. Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
      1. Coles & Lucchin, Ch17
      2. Mo, p302
      3. Max Petttini: Observational Tests of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, p17
      4. Peacock, Ch18
      5. Wikipedia
        1. cosmic microwave background (CMB)
        2. WMAP
    12. Galaxy Dynamics
      1. Wikipedia
    13. Gravitational lensing
      1. Wikipedia
          gravitational lensing


Maintained (if that is the word) by David J. Jeffery, Email: jeffery@physics.nhn.edu


This file was updated (but probably not for the last time) 2016sep20 Tuesday