! This is how one makes an html comment> <! br causes a line break > <! aquamarine 00ffff> <! aquamarine 2=forest green to me 70DB93> <! black 000000> <! blue 0000a0> <! blue: navy 23238E> <! brown: light wood E9C2A6> <! cyan=aquamarine 00FFFF> <! green #7FFF00> <! green: something 80ff00> <! green: green-yellow 93DB70> <! purple: pale #C4C4FB> <! purple: plum EAADEA> <! red: coral? FF7F00> <! white ffffff> <! yellow f0ff00> <! yellow: gold, but looks brown to me CD7F32> <! yellow: goldenrod medium EAEAAE> <! off-white background, red letters, blue clickable, green clicked ><! Insert--moon_map_side_near.html------------------------------------------------> <! div id="moon_map_side_near_html">
Caption: The near side of the Moon with the major maria (singular mare, vocalized mar-ray) and lunar craters identified.
The lunar phase is full moon or, maybe, waxing gibbous moon just before full moon.
Maria means "seas" in Latin. The early telescopic observers of the 17th century thought the maria might be seas. They soon realized this was wrong. However, the name is still appropriate since the maria are lava plains: i.e., the frozen seas of lava from lava flows welling up from the interior of the young maria formed 3.5--3 Gyr ago though some might be have formed as recently as 1.2 Gyr ago (see Wikipedia: Lunar mare: Ages).
The far side of the Moon has only small maria and looks rather bland and uninteresting compared to the near side.
The maria actually cover only ∼ 16 % of the lunar surface, but they look more extensive to Earthlings just because they cover ∼ 30 % of the near side (see Wikipedia: Lunar Mare).
This is the conventional orientation for modern images and maps of the Moon.
The first manned landing on the Moon occured there with Apollo 11 in 1969. The landing crew consisted of Neil Armstrong (1930--2012) and Buzz Aldrin (1930--). The third crew person Michael Collins (1930--) stayed in lunar orbit.
Tycho is the most obvious rayed crater---it has large radial rays emanating from it that are fallback from giant plumes that were ejected when the Tycho impactor impacted.
The rays indicate that Tycho is relatively young impact crater. The rays of impact craters are erased by space weathering over gigayear time scales. Tycho is estimated to be 108 Myr old (see Wikipedia: Tycho: Age and Description).
For more Moon features, see Wikipedia: List of lunar craters, Wikipedia: List of lunar features, Wikipedia: List of lunar maria, Wikipedia: List of lunar mountains and mountain ranges.