References


 A  B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q R
S T U V W X Y Z  

This is just a paper of all the references I've ever had to use. I primarily work in supernovae and radiative transfer. All the references are in AASTEX style. They are ordered alphabetically with comments that are hidden in latex-derived files.

Support for this paper was provided by NASA grant NAG5-3505 and the Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics \&~Astronomy of the University of Oklahoma.

Note there are special book categories that I can find with searches:

  1. Astro book.
  2. Biography book.
  3. History book.
  4. Literary book.
  5. Philosophy book.
  6. Poetry book.
  7. Science book.
  8. Travel book.
    
    
    

    A

  1. \bibitem[Ade et al.(2015)]{Planck 2015} Ade, P.A.R., et al. 2015, \A&A, 594, A13, arXiv:1502.01589 (Planck 2015) % % arXiv reference % Title: Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters % 200 + coauthors % Wonderful data
  2. \bibitem[Abramowitz \& Stegun(1972)]{abramowitz1972} Abramowitz, M., \&~Stegun, I. A. (editors) 1972, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office) % The old Bible of functions. \bibitem[Adler, Bazin, \& Schiffer(1975)]{adler1975} Adler, R., Bazin, M., \& Schiffer, M. 1975, Introduction to General Relativity (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company) % Dated in some respects and by modern standards awfully % dry, but still useful. It's the GR book I own. % Einstein described his discovery of the summation % as follows to his friend Louis Kollros (1878--1959): % ``I made a great discovery in mathematics: % I suppressed the summation sign every time that the % summation has to be done on an index which appears twice % in the general term.'' % (Kollros 1956) % as reported by Adler et al. on p. 21. % ABS-???
  3. \bibitem[Albright(1963)]{albright1963} Albright, W. F. 1963, The Archaeology of Palestine (Harmondswoth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, Ltd.) % Dated as to it's subject, it's a historical artifact % in it's own right by a pioneer of Palestinian archaeology. % I suspect it is a main source for James Michener's % ``The Source''. % It's very readable and gives a good idea of % archaeology in the early 20th century: the heroic age % of scientific archaeology. % History book. Travel book.
  4. \bibitem[Aldering et al.(2006)]{aldering2006} Aldering, G., et al. 2006, AJ, 650, 510 % % ADS reference % Title: Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: % Another Type Ia Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope % 26 coauthors % A Ia/IIn hydrid observationallly. % They report photometry and spectra. % Estimate the explosion date.
  5. \bibitem[Allen(1973)]{allen1973} Allen, C. W. 1973, Astrophysical Quantities, 2nd Edition (London: Athlone) % C. W. Allen great book of astrophysical quantities. % Astro book. % Allen 1973
  6. \bibitem[Ambwani \&~Sutherland(1988)]{ambwani1988} Ambwani, K., \&~Sutherland, P. G. 1988, ApJ, 325, 820 % ADS reference. % Title: Gamma-ray spectra and energy deposition for type IA supernovae. % gamma-rays and deposition in Ia's and gamma-ray spectra. % Using a Monte Carlo and also testing the grey approach. % Kailash's M.Sc. paper.
  7. \bibitem[Anders \&~Grevesse(1989)]{anders1989} Anders, E., \&~Grevesse, N. 1989, Geochim.~Cosmochim.~Acta, 53, 197 % % ADS reference, but not online. % Title: Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar % solar and solar system abundances. % Geochima et Cosmochimica Acta, % Now somewhat dated, but the dust has not settled on final values yet.
  8. \bibitem[Anderson et al.(1999)]{anderson1999} Anderson, E., et al. 1999, LAPACK Users' Guide, Third Edition (Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics), http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug/index.html % LAPACK Users' Guide. % Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics = SIAM. % There are 11 authors. % This guide is the official reference for LAPACK: % see http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug/node13.html where this claim is made. % The authors of the guide must be essentially the authors of LAPACK.
  9. \bibitem[Anderson(1989)]{anderson1989} Anderson, L. S. 1989, \apj, 339, 558 % The original refereed superlevels paper for NLTE radiative transfer.
  10. \bibitem[Angier(2007)]{angier2007} Angier, N. 2007, The Canon: A Whirligig Tour of the Beautiful Basics of Science (Boston: Houghton Mifflin) % A well reviewed intro book to science high on the bellelettrist meter. % Nature review. % Science book.
  11. \bibitem[Anupama et al.(2005)]{anupama2005a} Anupama, G. C., Sahu, D. K., \& Jose, J. 2005, A\%A, 429, 667 % % ADS Reference % Title: Type Ia supernova SN 2003du: Optical observations.
  12. \bibitem[Anupama et al.(2005)]{anupama2005} Anupama, G. C., et al. 2005, \apj, 631, L125 % % ADS Reference % 8 coauthors including Paolo Mazzali. % The Peculiar Type Ib Supernova SN 2005bf: Explosion of a Massive He Star with a Thin Hydrogen Envelope? % A very long rise 2-maximum Ibc SN. % Just a letter.
  13. \bibitem[Arfken(1970)]{arfken1970} Arfken, G. 1970, Mathematical Methods for Physicists (New York: Academic Press) % The old, but still very good, Arfken.
  14. \bibitem[Arfken(1985)]{arfken1985} Arfken, G. 1985, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd edition (New York: Academic Press, Inc.) % The not-so-old, but still very good, Arfken. % arnettd
  15. \bibitem[Arnett(1969)]{arnett1969} Arnett, W. D. 1979, A\&SS, 5, 180 % % ADS reference. % Title: A Possible Model of Supernovae: Detonation of 12C. % Moslty Fe-56 and Ni-56 in the core ejecta. See p. 25. This ruled against this model. % Not the standard Ia model, but the degenerate CO core of an extended star.
  16. \bibitem[Arnett(1979)]{arnett1979} Arnett, W. D. 1979, \apj, 230, L37 % Arnett's rule alpha=L/L_inst. The precursor paper.
  17. \bibitem[Arnett(1982)]{arnett1982} Arnett, W. D. 1982, \apj, 253, 785 % % ADS reference. % Type I supernovae. I - Analytic solutions for the early part of the light curve. % Arnett's rule alpha=L/L_inst. The full story.
  18. \bibitem[Arnett(1996)]{arnett1996} Arnett, W. D. 1996, Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis: An Investigation of the History of Matter from the Big Bang to the Present (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press) % Probably a pretty good book on nucleosynthesis, but already a bit dated no doubt. % It is more of a review than a textbook I'd say. % After reviewing all of Clayton (1983), I will % delve into it. % Astro book. \bibitem[Arnett(2008)]{arnett2008} Arnett, W. D. 2008, Observational Evidence for Black Holes in the Universe, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1053, 237 % ADS reference. % Title: A ``Crib Sheet'' for Supernova Events
  19. \bibitem[Asplund et al.(2005)]{asplund2005} Asplund, M., Grevesse, N., \& Sauval, A. J. 2005, in ASP Conf. Ser. 336, Cosmic Abundances as Records of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis, ed. T. G. Barnes III \& F. N. Bash (San Francisco: ASP), 25, astro-ph/0410214 % NOT!!!! cosmic composition, solar photosphere composition, I read it wrong all these years!!! % This is the real apj form for this reference. % This is an update of Grevesse & Sauval which was an update of Anders & Grevesse. % They downward revised C,N,O a lot and Ne may need an upward revision of .5 dex in number. % The article is in a book, but it's online % at Asplund et al. % Also online at Asplund et al.
  20. \bibitem[Axelrod(1980)]{axelrod1980} Axelrod, T. S. 1980, Ph.D.~thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz % % ADS reference, but not available online. % Title: Late time optical spectra from the Ni-56 model for Type 1 supernovae. % This thesis really demonstrated that the Ni-56-Co-56-Fe-56 decay chain in the IPE core of Ia's % really gave about the right nebular spectra. % The [Co III] 5900 line was looked into.

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    B

  21. \bibitem[Barbon et al.(1995)]{barbon1995} Barbon, R., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Patat, F., Turatto, M., \&~Iijima, T. 1995, A\&AS, 110, 513 %ADS Reference % SN 1993J in M 81: One year of observations at Asiago.
  22. \bibitem[Barbon et al.(1995)]{barbon1995} Barbon, R., Benetti, S., Rosino, L., Cappellaro, E., \& Turatto, M. 1990, A\&A, 237, 79 %ADS Reference % Title: Type IA supernova 1989B in NGC 3627. % Photometry and spectra.
  23. \bibitem[Barbon et al.(1982)]{barbon1982} Barbon, R., Ciatti, F., Rosino, L., Ortolani, S., \& Rafanelli, P. 1982, A\&AS, 116, 43 % SN 1979C B and V light curves. Optical max at about 1979apr15.
  24. \bibitem[Barbon et al.(1989)]{barbon1989} Barbon, R., Iijima, T., \& Rosino 1989, A\&A, 220, 83 % % ADS Reference % Title: The supernova 1984A in NGC4419. % Photometry and spectra.
  25. \bibitem[Barentine et al.(2005)]{barentine2005} Barentine, J., et al. 2005, CBET, 247, 1 % % ADS reference. % Title: Supernovae 2005eh and 2005ex-2005gj. % More than 20 coauthors. % See also CBET 247. % Discovery of Ia/IIn SN 2005gj on 2005sep26 UT (JD 2453639.5).
  26. \bibitem[Barger \&~Olson(1987)]{barger1987} Barger, V. D., \& Olson, M. G. 1987, {\it Classical Electricity and Magnetism} (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.) % Has some good things on currents and Ohm's law 211--217
  27. \bibitem[Barnhart(1960)]{barnhart1960} Barnhart, C. L. (editor) 1960, The American College Dictionary (New York: Random House) (Ba) % The most authoritative desk dictionary every published---it says so right on the cover. % Of course, this is my desk dictionary. % Ba-???
  28. \bibitem[Bartunov \& Mozgovoi(1987)]{bartunov1987} Bartunov, O. S., \&~Mozgovoi, A. L. 1987, Astrophysics, 26, 136 % % ADS reference. % But it is not available for downloading from ADS. % Title: Formation of multicomponent blends in envelopes of supernovas. I - Effects of % nonlocal radiative coupling. % The Sobolev method for supernovae, arbitrary lines, % radiation pressure: the paper David Branch should have % written in 1983 since he used it in the SN 1981B paper. barone
  29. \bibitem[Baron(2007)]{baron2007} Baron, E. 2007, in The Multicoloured Landscape of Compact Objects and their Explosive Origins, AIP Conf.~Pro.~924, Vol.~1 Cefal\`u, Sicily, 2006 June 11---24, ed.~L.~A.~Antonelli et al. (Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics), 350 % % ADS reference. % http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0611002 % Title: Spectral Modeling of Type II Supernovae.
  30. \bibitem[Baron et al.(2006)]{baron2006} Baron, E., Bongard, S., Branch, D., \&~Hauschildt, P. H. 2006, \apj, 645, 480 % % ADS Reference % Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydrodynamical Models % Figure 11 shows the inverse exponential density law with velocity of good hydrodynamics explosion models.
  31. \bibitem[Baron \&~Cooperstein(1990)]{baron1990} Baron, E., \& Cooperstein, J. 1990, \apj, 353, 597 % Title: The effect of iron core structure on supernovae % This is SNe II, but they also cover the corrected Chandrasekhar mass including finite % temperature effects.
  32. \bibitem[Baron et al.(1995)]{baron1995} Baron, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Branch, D., Austin, S., Garnavich, P., Ann, H. B., Wagner, R. M., Filippenko, A. V., Matheson, T., \& Liebert, J. 1995, \apj, 441, 170 % %ADS Reference % Non-LTE spectral analysis and model constraints on SN 1993J.
  33. \bibitem[Baron et al.(1996)]{baron1996} Baron, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Nugent, P., \&~Branch, D. 1996, MNRAS, 283, 297 %, astro-ph/9605088 % NLTE Effects in Modeling of Supernovae near Maximum Light % See p. 2 for there conclusion the Sobolev approximation is % is totally inadequate which is not convincing because it is % not a head to head comparison between NLTE with and without Sobolev. % See p. 3 where the good epsilon (thermalization parameter) % is .05 to .1 this is for there LTE % calculations as well as the LTE lines of their NLTE calculations % one supposes. % Dan Kasen finds .3 as his good value. Why the difference? % Probably, the different treatment of opacity. % If Dan's expansion opacity is somehow an underestimate or % too CRD-like (but the non-overlapping opacities approximation % if effective in his approach would tend to make % his good epsilon smaller I'd think). % Employs 617 Fe II energy levels (see p. 299).
  34. \bibitem[Baron et al.(2008)]{baron2008} Baron, E., Jeffery, D. J., Branch, D., Bravo, E., Garc\'\i a-Senz, D., \&~Hauschildt, P. A. 2008, ApJ, 672, 1038 % arXiv:0709.4177v1 % \bibitem[Baron et al.(2004)]{baron2004} Baron, E., Nugent, P. E., Branch, D., \&~Hauschildt, P. H. 2004, \apj, 616, L91 % Type IIP Supernovae as Cosmological Probes: A Spectral-fitting Expanding Atmosphere % Model Distance to SN 1999em % SEAM with reddening constrained.
  35. \bibitem[Baron et al.(2005)]{baron2005} Baron, E., Nugent, P. E., Branch, D., \&~Hauschildt, P. H. 2005, in 1604-2004: Supernovae as Cosmological Lighthouses, ASP Conference Series, Vol.~342, Proceedings of the conference held 15--19 June, 2004 in Padua, Italy, ed.~ M. Turatto, S. Benetti, L. Zampieri, \&~W. Shea (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), 351, astro-ph/0409659 % Title: Early Spectra of Supernovae. % Current PHOENIX and SEAM with reddening constrained.
  36. \bibitem[Baron et al.(2003)]{baron2003} Baron, E., Nugent, P. E., Branch, D., Hauschildt, P. H., Turatto, M., \&~Cappellaro, E. 2003, \apj, 586, 1199 % Title: Determination of Primordial Metallicity and Mixing in the Type II-P Supernova 1993W. % Show how reddening can be constrained and lots of other good things too.
  37. \bibitem[Baron et al.(2007)]{baron2007b} Baron, E., et al. 2007, in preparation % Paper on the spectra generated from model PRD5.5 of % Bravo & Garcia-Senz (2007b).
  38. \bibitem[Baym(1978)]{baym1978} Baym, G. 1978, {\it Lectures On Quantum Mechanics} (Reading Massachusetts: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.), (Ba) % Seems an excellent undergraduate quantum mechanics textbook.
  39. \bibitem[Beals(1931)]{beals1931} Beals, C. S. 1931, MNRAS, 91, 966 % The contours of emission bands in novæ and Wolf-Rayet stars. % The theory of flat-top emission from expanding optically thin shells. % He worked at the Dominion Observatory in British Columbia it seems or at least % was a Canadian. There is a Carlyle S. Beals Award given by CASCA.
  40. \bibitem[Benetti et al.(2004)]{benetti2004} Benetti, S., et al. 2004, MNRAS, 348, 261 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Supernova 2002bo: inadequacy of the single parameter description. % 18 coauthors.
  41. \bibitem[Benetti et al.(2005)]{benetti2005} Benetti, S., et al. 2005, \apj, 623, 1011 % % ADS reference. % The 26 well studied close SNe Ia that howell2006 use. % There are 11 coauthors. % They give B max and Si II velocity at 10 days past B maximum. % howell2006 turn the B max into Ni-56 mass.
  42. \bibitem[Freedman, Donahue, Schneider, \& Voit(2008)]{bennett(2008} Bennett, J., Donahue, M., Schneider, N., \& Voit, M. 2008, The Cosmic Perspective, 5th edition (San Francisco: Pearson Addison-Wesley) % Seems a good book for its time.
  43. \bibitem[Benvenuti et al.(1982)]{benvenuti1982} Benvenuti, P., Sanz Fernandez de Cordoba, L., Wamsteker, W., Macchetto, F., Palumbo, G. C., \&~Panagia, N. 1982, An Atlas of UV Spectra of Supernovae (Noordwijk: European Space Agency Scientific and Technical Branch) % % ADS reference. % See also % % ADS reference which is probably almost the same work, but with an abstract. % It's a book, and so not available online. % But the spectra are at % The INES Archive Data Server, Version 3.0: {\it IUE} Final Archive.
  44. \bibitem[Bernstein(1973)]{bernstein1973} Bernstein, J. 1973, Einstein (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books), (Be) % Science book. History book. % A good short account by an expert physicist. % Of course, lots more detail has been rehashed in recent years % and Einstein's personal life is now much better known and % disected.
  45. \bibitem[Bernstein(2007)]{bernstein2007} Bernstein, J. 2007, Plutonium: A History of the World's Most Dangerous Element (Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press) % A well reviewed intro book on plutonian and its history. % Nature review. % Science book.\
  46. \bibitem[Bernstein et al.(2000)]{bernstein2000} Bernstein, J., Fishbane, P. M., \&~Gasiorowicz, S. 2000, {Modern Physics} (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall) (BFG) % A decent modern physics book. Sort conventional.
  47. \bibitem[Bessell(1990)]{bessell1990} Bessell, M. S. 1990, PASP, 102, 1181 % % ADS reference. % Title: UBVRI passbands. % Standard UBVRI passbands. Still standard as of 2007. % I've a few notes on this paper in the reference folder.
  48. \bibitem[Bevington(1969)]{bevington1969} Bevington, P. R. 1969, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company) % The old, but still very good Bevington
  49. \bibitem[Bhat(1992)]{bhat1992} Bhat, M. R. 1992, Nuclear Data Sheets, 67, 195 % all about isobars of atomic mass 57, % especially Ni57 and Co57.
  50. \bibitem[Bionta et al.(1987)]{bionta1987} Bionta, R. M., et al. 1987, Phys. Rev. Letters, 58, 1494 % The other neutrino burst discovery paper.
  51. \bibitem[Blaylock et al.(2000)]{blaylock2000} Blaylock, M., Branch, D., Casebeer, D., Milliard, J., Baron, E., Richardson, D., \&~ Acheta, C. 2000, PASP, 112, 1439 % % ADS Reference % Mount Wilson and Palomar Photographic Supernova Spectra % This includes SN 1954A Ib.
  52. \bibitem[Blinnikov et al.(2006)]{blinnikov2006} Blinnikov, S. I., R\"opke, F. K., Sorokina, E. I., Gieseler, M., Reinecke, M., Travaglio, C., Hillebrandt, W., \& Stritzinger, M. 2006, A\&A, 453, 229 % % ADS reference. % Title: Theoretical light curves for deflagration models of type Ia supernova. % Among other things a recent reference for Blinnikov's stella code.
  53. \bibitem[Blondin(2007)]{blondin2007} Blondin, S. 2007, private communication % St\'ephane tells me that the 1993sep14 SN 1993J spectrum was taken the MMT Observatory % by Challis & Pun and that it was never published before the local normalization paper % of Jeffery et al. (2007). He says it's been flux calibrated and a version from the % CfA website is the same as the old one Pete sent us. I guess it's calibrated as % far as anyone knows.
  54. \bibitem[Blondin et al.(2006)]{blondin2006} Blondin, S., et al. 2006, AJ, 131, 1648 % % ADS reference. % Title: Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae % at High and Low Redshifts. % 37 coauthors: all the usual suspects. % SN Ia calcium line velocities studied among other line velocities.
  55. \bibitem[Blondin \&~Tonry(2007)]{blondin2007b} Blondin, S., \&~Tonry, J. L. 2007, in The Multicoloured Landscape of Compact Objects and their Explosive Origins, AIP Conf.~Pro.~924, Vol.~1 Cefal\`u, Sicily, 2006 June 11---24, ed.~L.~A.~Antonelli et al. (Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics), 312, arXiv:astro-ph/0612512v1 % % ADS reference. % http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0612512 % Title: Determining the Type, Redshift, and Phase of a Supernova Spectrum. %
  56. \bibitem[Bloomfield(2006)]{bloomfield2006} Bloomfield, L. 2006, How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life (Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.) % Pretty good physics-for-poets textbook.
  57. \bibitem[Bode et al.(2004)]{bode2004} Bode, M. F., O'Brien, T. J., \& Simpson, M. 2004, \apj, 600, L63 % % ADS reference. % Title: Echoes of an Explosive Past: Solving the Mystery of the First Superluminal Source. % Classical Nova GK Persei. Hourglass outer PN and inner nebula from the 1901 outburst. % This may be a failed Ia since the secondary hasn't enough mass to bring the primary now % a WD up the Chandrasekhar limit. % Hachisu et al. (2007, in submission) think so.
  58. \bibitem[Bondi(1961)]{bondi1961} Bondi, H. 1961, Cosmology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (Bo) % Badly dated, but still an interesting account of the % state of cosmology at the beginning of the 1960's. % A classic of its kind. % I do think Bondi is sometimes too elaborate in arguing his philosophical points. % Science book. History book. % \bibitem[Branch(1972)]{branch1972} Branch, D. 1972, A\&A, 16, 247 % % ADS reference % The spectrum of the type I supernova of 1954 in NGC 4214. % David confirms He I lines in SN 1954A Ib. % McLaughlin identified them in 1963.
  59. \bibitem[Branch(1980)]{branch1980} Branch, D. 1980, in Proc. Workshop on Atomic Phys. and Spectroscopy: Supernova Spectra ed.~R. Meyerott \&~H.~G.~Gillespie (New York: American Institute of Physics), 39 % % ADS reference. % But the article is not currently available online anywhere. % Title: Synthetic Spectra of Supernovae. % This seems to be the Ur-SYNOW paper.
  60. \bibitem[Branch(1985)]{branch1985a} Branch, D. 1985, in Nucleosynthesis : Challenges and New Developments, ed.~W.~David Arnett \& J.~W.~Truran (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 261 % % ADS reference. % But neither the article nor abstract is currently available online anywhere. % Title: The Optical Spectrum of a Carbon-Deflagration Supernova . % This is the 1st paper where Co II was suggested for forming the 3250 A UV minimum in SN Ia spectra. % The follow up with SYNOW synthetic spectra % is Branch & Venkatakrishna (1986).
  61. \bibitem[Branch(1987)]{branch1987} Branch, D. 1987, \apj, 316, L81 % % ADS reference % Title: High-velocity matter in a classical Type I supernova - The demise of Type IA homogeneity. % A SYNOW analysis of the Wegner & McMahan -7 premax spectrum of 1984A.
  62. \bibitem[Branch(1992)]{branch1992} Branch, D. 1992, \apj, 392, 35 % Ni-56 in SN Ia. % The alpha factor for the Arnett law. % CO to Ni-56 yields $1.55\,{\rm foe/M_{\odots}}$ (p. 37). % CO to Si-28 yields 76 % as much (p. 37).
  63. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2005)]{branch2005} Branch, D., Baron, E., Hall, N., Melakayil, M., \&~Parrent, J. 2005, PASP, 117, 545 % ADS reference. % ApJ full text. % Title: Comparative Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernova Spectra. I. SN 1994D. % The first in a series of papers on analyzing SNe Ia. (Paper I) % It's a brief SYNOW reference among other things. % Other than Fisher (2000) there only seem to be brief references. % It covers the photospheric phase of 94D in detail. % There seems to be an identifiable silicon glitch at about 6172 A in the % day 28 (apr18) spectrum. v=8600 pm 1000 km/s % The Asiago apr16 spectrum as the glitch more centered at 6165 A. % This would be more like 8300 km/s, but within error the same.
  64. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2003)]{branch2003} Branch, D., Baron, E., \&~Jeffery, D.J. 2003, in Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursters, ed.~K.~W.~Weiler (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 47, astro-ph/0111573 % A review paper. I did the polarization part and was a bit out of date.
  65. \bibitem[Branch et al.(1982)]{branch1982} Branch, D., Buta, R., Falk, S. W., McCall, M., Sutherland, P. G., Uomoto, A., Wheeler, J. C., \&~Wills, B. J. 1982, ApJ, 252, L61 % ADS Reference. % Title: Interpretation of the maximum light spectrum of a Type I supernova. % The letter on SN 1981B that preceded the full paper.
  66. \bibitem[Branch et al.(1988)]{branch1988} Branch, D., Drucker, W., \&~Jeffery, D. J. 1988, ApJ, 330, L117 % Varying Si II line velocities in Ia. An early evidence of inhomogeneity. % I just plotted the figure.
  67. \bibitem[Branch et al.(1981)]{branch1981} Branch, D., Falk, S. W., Uomoto, A. K., Wills, B. J., McCall, M. L., \& Rybski, P. 1981, ApJ, 240, 780 % ADS reference. % Title: The type II supernova 1979c in M100 and the distance to the Virgo cluster. % This seems to be the second paper using the original SYNOW and the first one % available online. This is said on p. 790. % The first SYNOW paper appears to be % Branch (1980), but that is currently not online. % It has a longer SYNOW description.
  68. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2000)]{branch2000} Branch, D., Jeffery, D. J., Blaylock, M., \&~Hatano, K. 2000, PASP, 112, 217 % , astro-ph/9911099 % % ADS reference. % Title: Supernova Resonance-scattering Profiles in the Presence of External Illumination. % the circumstellar interaction toplighting paper % with radiative transfer in the Sobolev mode.
  69. \bibitem[Branch et al.(1983)]{branch1983} Branch, D., Lacy, C. H., McCall, M. L., Sutherland, P. G., Uomoto, A., Wheeler, J. C., \&~Wills, B. J. 1983, ApJ, 270, 123 % ADS reference. % Title: The Type I supernova 1981b in NGC 4536 - The first 100 days. % the second 1981B paper. % As far as I know, and Bartunov & Mozgovoi (1987) agree, % this is the paper in which David generalized the doublet % scheme of Olson (1982) for % Sobolev line blending and applied it to supernovae: % of course Olson's scheme followed pretty straightforwardly % from Rybicki \&~Hummer (1978). % There is a transient Halpha emission seen in the 1981mar13 spectrum % and this is discussed on p. 130.
  70. \bibitem[Branch et al.(1985)]{branch1985} Branch, D., Doggett, J.B., Nomoto, K., \&~Thielemann, F.-K. \apj, 294, 619 % The first spectrum paper with W7 and mixed W7.
  71. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2008)]{branch2008} Branch, D., Jeffery, D. J., Parrent, J., Baron, E., Troxel, M. A., Stanishev, V. Keithley, M., \& Bruner, C. 2008, PASP, in press, arXiv:0712.2436v1 % Paper IV in the series: % ``Comparative Direct Analysis of Type~Ia Supernova Spectra.~IV.~Postmaximum,''
  72. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2007)]{branch2007} Branch, D., Parrent, J., Troxel, M. A., Casebeer, D., Jeffery, D. J., Baron, E., Ketchum, W., \&~Hall, N. 2007, in The Multicoloured Landscape of Compact Objects and their Explosive Origins, AIP Conf.~Pro.~924, Vol.~1 Cefal\`u, Sicily, 2006 June 11---24, ed.~L.~A.~Antonelli et al. (Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics), 342 % % ADS reference. % Not at astro-ph yet since I think SYNOW 2.0 isn't quite ready yet. % Title: Probing the Nature of Type I Supernovae with SYNOW. % Introduces SYNOW 2.0. A SYNOW reference.
  73. \bibitem[Branch et al.(1991)]{branch1991} Branch, D., Pauldrach, A. W. A., Puls, J., Jeffery, D. J., \&~Kudritzki, R. P. 1991, in {ESO/EIPC Workshop: SN~1987A and other Supernovae,} ed.~I.~J.~Danziger \&~K.~Kj\"ar (Garching: ESO), 437 % the first Munich NLTE paper. And the last with us on it.
  74. \bibitem[Branch \&~Venkatakrishna(1986)]{branch1986} Branch, D., \&~Venkatakrishna, K. L. 1986, ApJ, 306, L21 % % ADS reference. % Title: On the ultraviolet spectra of Type I supernovae. % Newly-synthesized Ni-56/Co-56 in the outer ejecta of Type~Ia SN~1981B % based on comparing synthetic spectra and UV Ia spectra. % Probably the first paper to argue for this. It is still on the % table as a possibility. But circa 2007, we are thinking of Ni-56/Co-56 % in clumps.
  75. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2002)]{branch2002} Branch, D.,~et~al. 2002, \apj, 566, 1005 %, astro-ph/0106367 % 17 authors running Branch, Benetti, Kasen, Baron, Jeffery, D. J., % etc. ApJ counts et al. as being zzzzzzzzzz. % David' comparative analysis of Ib's. % Hydrogen lines may be in all Ib's or most though hard to identify after maximum light. % He finds lots of evidence for detached hydrogen lines and helium % lines. He finds that out of 6, 5 Ib's have a fairly unique % v_ph(t) curve suggesting that they are very much alike and % spherically symmetric.
  76. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2003b)]{branch2003b} Branch, D., et al. 2003, AJ, 126, 1489 % % ADS Reference. % A SYNOW reference among other things. % Carbon in Ia SN 1998aq with a very tentative identification of the C II 4267. % 9 coauthors running Branch, Garnavich, Matheson, ...
  77. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2006a)]{branch2006a} Branch, D., Jeffery, D. J., Young, T. R., \&~Baron, E. 2006, PASP, 118, 791 % astro-ph/0604047 % Hydrogen in Type Ic Supernovae? % This is where I got the DIFF2 idea from. % The author list is just to show that the Over-the-Hill Gang rides again.
  78. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2006)]{branch2006b} Branch, D., et al. 2006, PASP, 118, 560, arXiv:astro-ph/0601048v1 % % ADS reference. % Title: Comparative Direct Analysis of Type Ia % Supernova Spectra. II. Maximum Light. % 10 coauthors: % Dang, L. C., Hall, N., Ketchum, W., Melakayil, M., Parrent, J., % Troxel, M. A., Casebeer, D., Jeffery, D. J., \&~Baron, E. % The 2nd in a series of papers on analyzing SNe Ia. (Paper II) % This is the 24 Ia's at maximum light. % This is where we define the 4 subtypes: % core-normal, broad-line, cool, shallow-silicon % with the understanding that the broad-line, cool, % shallow-silicon are spurs "radiating" % outward for the core-normals. % The original DIFF test, although not so called, % and tilting are presented there. % The Ketchum-Jeffery DIFF formulation is presented in an appendix.
  79. \bibitem[Branch et al.(2007b)]{branch2007b} Branch, D., et al. 2007, PASP, 119, 857, arXiv:0706.0081v1 % % ADS reference. % astro-ph/0706.0081. % Title: Comparative Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernova Spectra III. Premaximum % (Paper III) % This is Paper III of the series of homogeneous analysis of Ia spectra. % Paper I is Branch et al (2005). % Paper II is Branch et al (2006b). % 11 coauthors: % Branch, D. Troxel, M. A., Jeffery, D. J., % Hatano, K., Musco, M., Parrent, J., Baron, E., Dang, L. C., % Casebeer, D., Hall, N. \& Ketchum, W. % Sporadic CO because of clumps is discussed on p. 11 of the paper in preparation.
  80. \bibitem[Bravo \& Garc\'\i a-Senz(2006)]{bravo2006} Bravo, E., \& Garc\'\i a-Senz 2006, \apj, 642, L157 % % ADS Reference % Title: Beyond the Bubble Catastrophe of Type Ia Supernovae: Pulsating Reverse Detonation Models. % Their first PRD model.
  81. \bibitem[Bravo \& Garc\'\i a-Senz(2007)]{bravo2007} Bravo, E., \& Garc\'\i a-Senz 2007, private communication % Eduardo sent me the PRD5.5 model with figures.
  82. \bibitem[Bravo \& Garc\'\i a-Senz(2007)]{bravo2007b} Bravo, E., \& Garc\'\i a-Senz 2007, in preparation % The PRD5.5 model paper that Eduardo and Domingo are working on. % Baron et al. (2007b) computer model spectra for it.
  83. \bibitem[Brooks et al.(2005)]{brooks2005} Brook, E. D. III, McKinley, M. S., Daffin, F., \& Sz\"oke, A. 2005, J. of Comp. Phys., 205, 737 % % Science Direct if you are permitted. There is a downloadable pdf file. % Title: Symbolic implicit Monte Carlo radiation transport in the difference % formulation: a piecewise constant discretization. % They use the difference of I-B rather than I in solving the radiative transfer equation % by Monte Carlo. This is a much different Monte Carlo approach than that of % Lucy (1999a) with his indivisible photon packets. % They discuss and give references for the teleportation error in of Section 4.1
  84. \bibitem[Browne \& Firestone(1986)]{browne1986} Browne, E., \& Firestone, R. B. 1986, Table of Radioactive Isotopes (New York: John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.) % Radioacitve isotopes and decay chains and % radiations including all the complex stuff like % X-ray, atomic electron, internal bremstrahlung X-ray.
  85. \bibitem[Bruen(2007)]{bruen2007} Bruen, K. 2007, Priest (Galway, Eire: St.~Martin's Minotaur) % Cutesy Irish mystery story full of blarney and charm by Ken Bruen. % Did I mention, the wee folk appear. % well reviewed in the Washington Post. % Mystery book.
  86. \bibitem[Buchler \& Mazurek(1974)]{buchler1974} Buchler, J. P., \& Mazurek, T. J. 1974, BAAS, 6, 470 % % ADS reference. % Title: Carbon Detonation Manque and Distended Nebulae Formation. % An ealier paper on the failure of carbon detonation in carbon-oxygen cores % and thus deflagration, but this is not WD but an extended star with a CO core.
  87. \bibitem[Buta(1982)]{buta1982} Buta, R. J. 1982, PASP, 94, 578 % B and V light curves of radio SN 1980K II with optical max at about 1980nov04.
  88. \bibitem[Buta \& Turner(1983)]{buta1983} Buta, R. J., \& Turner, A. 1983, PASP, 95, 72 % % ADS reference. % Title: The photometric properties of the bright Type I supernova 1981B in NGC 4536. % Early light curve data for SN 1981B. % They give B maximum as JD 2444672 or 1981mar08.5.
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  90. \bibitem[Cahill(2016)]{cahill2016} Cahill, K., 2016, arXiv:1606.08865 % arXiv reference. % Title: The eras of radiation, matter, and dark energy: new information from the Planck Collaboration
  91. Calder & Lahav 2008. % Title: Dark energy: back to Newton?" % An interesting paper on the Newton's connection to dark energy.
  92. \bibitem[Cappellaro \&~Turatto(2000)]{cappellaro2000} Cappellaro, E., \&~Turatto, M. 2000, in The Influence of Binaries on Stellar Population Studies, ed. D. Vanbeveren, in press, astro-ph/0012455 % A nice little review of supernova classification with rates.
  93. \bibitem[Cappellaro et al.(1997)]{cappellaro1997} Cappellaro, E., Mazzali, P. A., Benetti, S., Danziger, I. J., Turatto, M., della Valle, M., \& Patat, F. 1997, A\&A, 328, 203 % % ADS reference. % Title: SN Ia light curves and radioactive decay. % They have 92a light curve data out to about 945 days past explosion. % This still maybe the longest SN Ia light curves.
  94. \bibitem[Cappellaro et al.(2001)]{cappellaro2001} Cappellaro, E., et al. 2001, ApJ, 549, L215 % % ADS reference. % Title: Detection of a Light Echo from SN 1998bu. % Mostly about nebular emission 500 days past explosion, but I guess earlier % spectra are discussed too. % 9 coauthors
  95. \bibitem[Cardelli et al.(1989)]{cardelli1989} Cardelli, J. A., Clayton, G. C., \&~Mathis, J. S. 1989, ApJ, 345, 245 % reddening law.
  96. \bibitem[Cardwell(1994)]{cardwell1994} Cardwell, D. 1994, The Norton History of Technology (New York: W.W. Norton \& Company), (Ca) % Pretty fair, but it really covers only the % epoch since 1500 or or in detail.
  97. \bibitem[Carroll(2004)]{carroll2004} Carroll, S. M. 2004, Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity (San Franciso: Addison-Wesley) (Car) % (Car-???) % (Carroll, 2004, p. ???)
  98. \bibitem[Carslaw \& Jaeger(1959)]{carslaw1959} Carslaw, H. S., \& Jaeger, J. C. 1959, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press). % The 2nd edition of a diffusion heat classic. % 536.2 C23c2 in Englib. % QC 321 .C28 1959 in Physics/Astronomy library.
  99. \bibitem[Casebeer et al.(2000)]{casebeer2000} Casebeer, D., Branch, D., Blaylock, M., Milliard, J., Baron, E., Richardson, D., \&~ Acheta, C. 2000, PASP, 112, 1433 % % ADS Reference % Lick Observatory Photographic Supernova Spectra % This includes SN 1954A Ib with pg maximum estimated as 1954_04_19.
  100. \bibitem[Caspar(1993)]{caspar1993} Caspar, M. 1993 (1948), Kepler, (German First Edition 1948) Translator: C. D. Hellman, Introduction: O. Gingerich, Bibliography: O. Gingerich, & A. Segonds (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) (Ca) % Max Caspar probably gave the definitive Kepler biography. One can't imagine % anyone doing any better: more details, minor corrections, different % perspectives, but any new biography would have to be mainly rehash---of % course, we live in the great age of rehashed biographies. % But Koestler (1977) offers an % interesting and often derivative companion piece. % There's an amusing bit where Caspar parenthetically comments % on how light-hearted bombardments were in the 17th century (Ca-319). % History book. Biography book. % Ca-???
  101. \bibitem[Cassinelli \&~Hummer(1971)]{cassinelli1971} Cassinelli, J. P., \&~Hummer, D. G. 1971, MNRAS, 154, 9 % Their paper on extended spherically-symmetric electron-scattering atmospheres. % They show that at the limb 100 % polarization is achieved, but for very little % flux. It's still hard to get a high polarization from an asymmetric extended % atmosphere, but not as hard as with Chandrasekhar's plane-parallel result.
  102. \bibitem[Castelli \& Kurucz(2010)]{castelli2010} Castelli, F. \& Kurucz, R. L. 2010, A\&A, in press % ADS reference. % Title: New Fe II energy levels from stellar spectra. % Golly, there are still new Fe II levels and lines to find---important ones.
  103. \bibitem[Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams(2006)]{cbat2006} Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams 2006, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Center for Astrophysics), http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/cbat.html %Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams % I mostly use it for the various list particularly for minor planets (for teaching) and supernovae % (for research).
  104. \bibitem[Challis(1994)]{challis1994} Challis, P. 1994, private communication % Pete Challis saying that the 1993sep17 and 1993nov14 HST spectra of SN 1993J Ib have % not been given final flux calibration and may be off in scale by a factor of 5--6. % He promised/hoped to send the factor along, but I don't that he ever did. % He doesn't say anything about the calibration of the complementary 1993sep14 MMT spectrum.
  105. \bibitem[Challis(2006)]{challis2006} Challis, P. 2006, private communication % Pete tells me the 1993sep17 and 1993nov14 HST spectra of SN 1993J Ib have not % been published before the local normalization paper of Jeffery et al. (2007).
  106. \bibitem[Chalmers(1999)]{chalmers1999} Chalmers, A. F. 1999, What is this Thing Called Science? (Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc) (Ch) % An introduction to philosophy of science. Its seems good to me. % An easier start than % Klee (1997). % Science book. chandrasekhars
  107. \bibitem[Chandrasekhar(1935)]{chandrasekhar1935} Chandrasekhar, S. 1935, MNRAS, 95, 207 % The zero-temperature perfect Fermi gas EOS (i.e., the Chandrasekhar EOS) derived % for the first time according to ostriker1968.
  108. \bibitem[Chandrasekhar(1944)]{chandrasekhar1944} Chandrasekhar, S. 1944, ApJ, 99, 180 % Gives a table of the exact grey atmosphere limb-darkening law. % Two of the values are inaccurate in the last decimal place.
  109. \bibitem[Chandrasekhar(1957)]{chandrasekhar1957} Chandrasekhar, S. 1957, An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) % An old classic of stellar structure. % It probably gives Chan's last and perhaps 1930s vintage take on the Chan mass % on p. 421ff.
  110. \bibitem[Chandrasekhar(1960)]{chandrasekhar1960} Chandrasekhar, S. 1960, Radiative Transfer (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) % The classic old Bible of radiative transfer. % For me the early section on polarization is of greatest interest. % p. 248 gives the polarization from a plane-parallel electron-scattering atmosphere as % a function of angle from the normal. Only at 90 degrees is 11.7 % reached. % Chandrasekhar, S. 1960, p. 247--248. % for plane-parallel atmosphere polarization. % https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subrahmanyan_Chandrasekhar 1910--1995 % https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subrahmanyan_Chandrasekhar#Books % https://archive.org/details/radiativetransfe0000chan/page/n419/mode/2up borrow online
  111. \bibitem[Chaisson et al.(1960)]{chaisson2004} Chaisson, E., & McMillan, S. 2004, Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.) (CM) % (CM-???)

  112. \bibitem[Chappell \& Pereira(2021)]{chappell2021} Chappell, B.A. \& Pereira, T.M.D. 2021, A\&A, in press, arXiv:2112.13852 % arXiv:2112.13852 % Title: SunnyNet: A neural network approach to 3D non-LTE radiative transfer % convolutional neural network but all the same to me
  113. \bibitem[Chornock \& Filippenko(2007)]{chornock2007} Chornock, R., \& Filippenko, A. V. 2007, AJ, submitted, astro-ph/0609405 % % ADS Reference % Title: Deviations From Axisymmetry Revealed by Line Polarization in the Normal Type Ia SN 2004S. % A single epoch of high S/N spectropolarimetry.
  114. \bibitem[Chornock et al.(2006)]{chornock2006} Chornock, R., Filippenko, A. V., Branch, D., Foley, R. J., Jha, S., \& Li, W. 2006, PASP, 118, 722 % % ADS Reference % Title: Spectropolarimetry of the Peculiar Type Ia Supernova 2005hk % Not much polarization. % A SN 2002cx-like Ia. The super-peculiar kind.
  115. \bibitem[Christensen et al.(2003)]{christensen2003} Christensen, L., Becker, T., Jahnke, K., Kelz, A., Roth, M. M., S\'anchez, S. F., \& Wisotzki, L. 2003, A\&A, 401, 479 % % ADS Reference % Title: Integral field spectroscopy of SN 2002er with PMAS. % A five SN 2002er Ia spectra. They are all redundant with and with poorer coverage % than the Kotak et al. (2005) spectra except for % the almost maximum light 2002sep07 spectrum. % Eddie Baron has the the Christensen et al. in files. % A SN 2002cx-like Ia. The super-peculiar kind.
  116. \bibitem[Chugai(1988)]{chugai1988} Chugai, N. N. 1988, Sov. Astron. Lett., 14(5), 334 % % ADS reference. % Title: Supernova 1987A - the Origin of the Halpha Emission Blueshift. % Chugai's explanation of P-Cygni line emission peak blueshifts as an % effect of diffuse reflection off the core of line-scattered emission.
  117. \bibitem[Chugai(1992)]{chugai1992} Chugai, N. N. 1992, Sov. Astron. Lett., 18(3), 168 % Nick's two clump model for 87A polarization. The % detail is more than I care to follow, but basically two % non-axisymmetric clumps are ionized by ni-56 and then % they scatter polarized light that breaks spherical symmetry % and axisymmetry. With all the parameters fit, it does % a good job of reproducing the line polarization and position % angle of H\alpha for day 71 and 100.
  118. \bibitem[Clark et al.(1957)]{clark197} Clark, J. B., Aitken, A. C., \& Connor, R. D. 1957, {Physical and Mathematical Tables} (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd Ltd.), (CAC) % A useful set of tables, I'm familiar with. % (CAC-??)
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  120. \bibitem[Clayton(1983)]{clayton1983} Clayton, D. D. 1983, % \citep[e.g.,][p.]{clayton1983} Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press) % The classic old Bible of stellar structure. % Lots of good stuff in here still. % But Don Clayton should really bring out a new edition. % (Cl-???) % \citep[e.g.,][p.]{clayton1983}
  121. \bibitem[Clocchiatti et al.(1995)]{clocchiatti1995} Clocchiatti, A., Wheeler, J. C., Barker, E. S., Filippenko, A. V., Matheson, T., \&~Liebert, J. W. 1995, \apj, 446, 167 % % ADS Reference % Spectrophotometric Study of SN 1993J at First Maximum Light. % From p. 169 and 175 one deduces that they estimate explosion to be about 28.0 UT.
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  123. \bibitem[Clocchiatti et al.(2001)]{clocchiatti2001} Clocchiatti, A., et al. 2001, \apj, 553, 886 %ADS reference. % Title: The Type IC SN 1990B in NGC 4568. % 28 coauthors: mostly the usual suspects.
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  129. \bibitem[Colgrove(2007)]{colgrove2007} Colgrove, J. 2007, State of Immunity: The Politics of Vaccination in Twentieth-Century America (Berkeley, California: University of California Press) % Well reviewed in Science: % % review. % Science book. History book.
  130. \bibitem[Collins(1965)]{collins1965} Collins, L., & LaPierre, D. 1965, Is Paris Burning? (New York: Simon & Schuster) % The story of the liberation of Paris in 1944 August. % Probably all kinds of detailed studies and other % things have appeared since. % But there is still an authenticity to a book written % by authors who could interview participants. % LaPierre lived through the occupation and liberation % though he was a child then. % History book.
  131. \bibitem[Comins \& Kaufmann(2003)]{comins(2003} Comins, N. F., & Kaufmann, W. J. III, 2003, Discovering the Universe, 6th edition (New York: W. H. Freeman & Company) (CK) % A reasonable intro astro book. Kaufmann has left this veil of tears. % CK-???
  132. \bibitem[Conley et al.(2006)]{conley2006} Conley, A., et al. 2006, \aj, 132, 1707 % , astro-ph/0607363 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Rise Time of Type Ia Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey % 27 coauthors % Mean Ia rise time to B max is 19.10\pm .4 for high z and 19.6 pm for low z. % This is adjusted for stretch. % A weighted average gives 19.4 days which rounding to half day is 19.5.
  133. \bibitem[Cornford(1952)]{cornford1952} Cornford, F. M. 1952, Principium Sapientiae: The Origins of Greek Philosophical Thought (New York: Harper \& Row, Publishers, reprint 1965) (Cor)
    See
    Principium Sapientiae: The Origins of Greek Philosophical Thought by F. M. Cornford, W. K. C. Guthrie: Review by: D. A. Rees. % Probably dated and disputable in many ways, but Furley seems % to agree on many points. % http://www.sacredbible.org/studybible/OT-22_Proverbs.htm % for Bible Poverbs 7: principium sapientiae = the beginning of wisdom % Cor-???
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  141. \bibitem[Davisson(1965)]{davisson1965} Davisson, C. M. 1965, in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, ed.~K.~Siegbahn (Amsterdam: North-Holland), 37 % $\gamma$-ray interaction with matter including the photoelectric effect, % Compton scattering, and pair production. % The Klein-Nishina formula and all that.
  142. \bibitem[Deaton et al.(1998)]{deaton1998} Deaton, J., Branch, D., Baron, E., Fisher, A., Kirshner, R., \&~Garnavich, P. 1998, American Astronomical Society, 192nd AAS Meeting, \#06.10; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 30, p.824 % % ADS Reference % Spectral Analysis of the Peculiar Type IC Supernova 1997ef in UGC 4107.
  143. \bibitem[Landi Degl'Innocenti(2002)]{landi degl'innocenti2002} Landi Degl'Innocenti, E. 2002, in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry: Proceedings of the XII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, November 13--14, 2000 ed.~J.~Trujillo-Bueno, F.~Moreno-Insertis, \&~F.~S\'anchez (Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press), 1 % Title: the physics of polarization. % I really should study this to know something about polarization seeing as it's one % of my specialties.
  144. \bibitem[Deng et al.(2000)]{deng2000} Deng, J. S., Qiu, Y. L., Hu, J. Y., Hatano, K., \&~Branch, D. 2000, ApJ, 540, 452 % Spectrum Analysis of the Type IB Supernova SN 1999DN: Probable Identifications of C II and Halpha
  145. \bibitem[Deng et al.(2004)]{deng2004} Deng, J., et al. % Kawabata, K. S., Ohyama Y., Nomoto, K., Mazzali, P., % Wang, L., Jeffery, D. J., Iye, M., Tomita, H., \& Yoshii, Y. 2004, ApJ (Letters), 605, L37 % , astro-ph/0311590. % 10 authors % ``Subaru Spectroscopy of the Peculiar Type Ia Supernova 2002ic: % Interaction with a Hydrogen-rich Progenitor Wind'' % My contribution was mostly editorial.
  146. \bibitem[Densmore et al.(2007)]{densmore2007} Densmore, J. D, Urbatscha, T, J., Evans, T. M., \&~Buksas, M. W. 2007, Journal of Computational Physics, 222, 485 % % SCIRUS reference. % Title: A hybrid transport-diffusion method for Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. % Maybe really good, but it looks hard to make it general.
  147. \bibitem[Dessart et al.(2006)]{dessart2006} Dessart, L., Burrows, A., Ott, C. D., Livne, E., Yoon, S.-C., \& Langer, N. 2006, ApJ, 644, 1063 % ADS Reference. % Title: Multidimensional Simulations of the Accretion-induced Collapse of White Dwarfs to Neutron Stars % For supern-chan work mostly useful for showing Figure 1 with plots of rotating WD density % distribution.
  148. \bibitem[Dessart \&~Hillier(2005)]{dessart2005} Dessart, L., \&~Hillier, D. J. 2005, A\&A, 437, 667 % Quantitative spectroscopy of photospheric-phase type II supernovae. % p. 682 gives their explanation of the blue-shift of P-Cygni emission maxima. % This description is complementary to {chugai1988}'s explanation. % Their figure has synthetic locally normalized spectra.
  149. \bibitem[Dessart \&~Hillier(2008)]{dessart2008} Dessart, L., \&~Hillier, D. J. 2005, MNRAS, 383, 57 ADS reference. Title: Time-dependent effects in photospheric-phase Type II supernova spectra. % Probably time-dependent effects are important in other supernova types % too.
  150. \bibitem[Diamond(1997)]{diamond1997} Diamond, J. M. 1997, Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies (New York : W.W. Norton & Company) % It seems the classic about the necessities for % development of technologically and intellectually % advanced human societies. % Science book. History book.
  151. \bibitem[Dickens(1967)]{dickens1967} Dickens, A. G. 1967, The English Reformation (New York: Schocken Books) % One of those books where the style and sympathy of % the author make it a pleasure to read even if you % think that the peculiar intellectual issues comparatively % unimportant. The humane history remains important. % It's one of the books, I like to reread now and then. % History book.
  152. \bibitem[Doggett \&~Branch(1985)]{dessart1985} Doggett, J. B., \&~Branch, D. 1985, AJ, 90, 2303 % % ADS reference. % Title: A comparative study of supernova light curves. % The light curve paper. They discuss SN~1961V in NGC~1058, % Zwicky's Type~V. It is a radically weird Type~II with % velocities of 2000 km/s, hydrogen lines, very long plateau, % still be followed 8 years after explosion, seen as a % 18 mag star on plates dating 25 years before explosion, % always assuming Zwicky made the right identification. % I think there are BV template light curves that go % to much later times than Leibundgut 1988.
  153. \bibitem[Dom\'\inguez et al.(2007)]{dominguez2007} Dom\'\inguez, I., Piersanti, L., Bravo, E., H\"oflich, P., Straniero, O., \& Tornamb\'e, A. in The Multicoloured Landscape of Compact Objects and their Explosive Origins, AIP Conf.~Pro.~924, Vol.~1 Cefal\`u, Sicily, 2006 June 11---24, ed.~L.~A.~Antonelli et al. (Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics), 218 % ADS reference. % Title: Type Ia Supernova Cosmology from a Supernova Modeller Point of View. % Some discussion of super-chan SNe Ia.
  154. \bibitem[Dwarkadas \&~Chevalier(1998)]{dwarkadas1998} % \citep[e.g.,][p.~808--809]{dwarkadas1998} Dwarkadas, V. V., \&~Chevalier, R. A. 1998, \apj, 497, 807 % ADS reference. % Title: Interaction of Type IA Supernovae with Their Surroundings. % Ia remnants. Figure 1 shows that Hoeflich model profiles approximate % exponentials.

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  155. % \citealt{eastman1993} \bibitem[Eastman \&~Pinto(1993)]{eastman1993} Eastman, R. G., \&~Pinto, P.~A. 1993, ApJ, 412, 731 % ADS reference. % Title: Spectrum formation in supernovae - Numerical techniques % Their NLTE technique paper with sample nebular % Ia calculation and a sample II calculation. % hey, they didn't thank the referee!!! % They do give a good expansion opacity formalism. % The best simple one I think, the one that % gets really what expansion opacity is all about. % citep{eddy1979} \bibitem[Eddy(1979)]{eddy1979} Eddy, J. A. 1979, in New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA SP-402, ed.~Rein Ise (Washington D.C.: NASA) % no page number % NASA ADS % Title: New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA SP-402
  156. \citep[e.g.,][p.~115]{eiseley1961} \bibitem[Eiseley(1961)]{eiseley1961} Eiseley, L. 1961, Darwin's Century: Evolution and the Men Who Discovered It, (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc.) % Wriggling on p. 115, 295 % Eiseley 1961, p. 115, 295
  157. \bibitem[Elias-Rosa et al.(2006)]{elias-rosa2006} Elias-Rosa, N., et al. 2006, MNRAS, 369, 1880 % % ADS reference % 17 coauthors. % Title: Anomalous extinction behaviour towards the Type Ia SN 2003cg.
  158. \bibitem[Eisberg \& Resnick(1985)]{eisberg1985} Eisberg, R., \& Resnick, R. 1985, Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles (Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) % A pretty good modern physics book at a sort of advanced level. % A bit dated now. % Also familiarity breeds contempt and close study brings out % lots of things I'd change.
  159. \bibitem[Erhart et al.(2012)]{erhart2012} Erhart, J., Sponar, S., Sulyok, G., Badurek, G., Ozawa, M., \& Hasegawa, Y. 2012, Nature Physics, doi:10.1038/nphys2194 % Quant-ph reference % Nature Physics ref % Title: Experimental demonstration of % a universally valid error-disturbance uncertainty relation in spin-measurements % see also % http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=heisenbergs-uncertainty-principle-is-not-dead % the SciAm article
  160. \bibitem[Enge(1966)]{enge1966} Enge, H. A. 1966, Introduction to Nuclear Physics (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company) % Dated, but still good on a lot of things and I own a copy. % My first copy was stolen from brief case when I left in % the hall of the Refectory circa 1979.

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  161. \bibitem[Fagan(2004)]{fagan2004] Fagan, B. 2004, The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization (New York: Basic Books) (Fa) % Interesting popular book on how climate change has affected humankind % over the last 20,000 years or so. But it could use better graphs % and illustrations. Also the selection of cases seems a bit % haphazard and there's some jumping around. Not the definitive book % on the subject. % Fa-???
  162. \bibitem[Fantoli(1994)]{fantoli1994} Fantoli, A. 1994, Galileo: For Copernicanism and for the Church (Vatican City: Vatican Observatory Publications) % Not so different from Santillana (1955). % It covers the ground and has slightly differently weighted conclusions. % History book. Biography book.
  163. \bibitem[Fermi(1936)]{fermi1936} Fermi, E. 1936, Ricerca Scient., 7, 13 % Fermi's approximation to the grey atmosphere limb darkening law. % He was probably interested in neutron transfer.
  164. \bibitem[Fesen \&~Gunderson(1996)]{fesen96} Fesen, R. A., \&~Gunderson, K. S. 1996, \apj, 470, 967 % The c/30 jet of Cas A. % Maybe one of a pair of bipolar jets. % Maybe just the biggest Rayleigh-Taylor finger.
  165. \bibitem[Feynman et al.(1963)]{feynman1963} Feynman, R., Leighton, R. B., & Sands, M. 1963, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol 1 (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publicshing Co., Inc.) % A classic of exposition of mainly undergraduate physics.
  166. \bibitem[Fick(1855)]{fick1855} Fick, A. 1855, Poggendorff's Annalen Physik, 94, 59 % Fick's law in 1-d first presented. % The reference is from Wikipedia.
  167. \bibitem[Filippenko(1988)]{filippenko1988} Filippenko, A. V. 1988, AJ, 96, 1941 % % ADS Reference % Supernova 1987K - Type II in youth, type Ib in old age. % SN 1987K IIb in NGC 4651. Alex introduces the name IIb.
  168. \bibitem[Filippenko(1992)]{filippenko1992} Filippenko, A. V. 1992, \apj, 384, L37 % % ADS Reference % Early-time spectra of type IC supernovae - Further evidence for the presence of hydrogen. % Comparison of the early-time optical spectra of the Type II SN 1985L and the Type Ic SN 1987M % confirms the previously suspected presence of H-alpha in SN 1987M. The H-alpha line has a P Cygni % profile in both objects, but it is not as prominent as in the Type II SN 1987K, whose spectrum % at late times became indistinguishable from that of SNs Ic. A spectrum of the Type Ic SN 1991A % reveals a weak but nearly unmistakable H-alpha emission line; % faint H-alpha emission may also be present in the Type Ic SN 1990aa.
  169. \bibitem[Filippenko(1994)]{filippenko1994} Filippenko, A. V. 1994, private communication % "The spectrum of SN 1993J that Tom Matheson and I got at Lick Observatory % (3-m Shane reflector) on November 17, 1993 UT --- almost exactly % coincident with the new HST data. It is a combination of spectra % taken between November 17.41 and 17.46 UT. % The units are f_nu (mJy), but the night was very cloudy so don't % trust the absolute fluxes. The relative spectrophotometry should be % excellent, though. (We use the parallactic angle, etc.) % 2 Ang/bin, 3120.0 -- 9900.0 Ang, 3391 bins." % The agreement in overlap region with 1993nov14 spectrum is excellent actually (after converting % to flambda.
  170. \bibitem[Filippenko(1997)]{filippenko1997a} Filippenko, A. V. 1997, in Thermonuclear Supernovae, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, held in Begur, Girona, Spain, June 20-30, 1995, edited by P. Ruiz-Lapuente, R. Canal, and J. Isern (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 1 % % ADS reference. But the article doesn't seem to be online anywhere. % Title: Type Ia supernovae: observational overview. % According to Filippenko (1997, p. 318) % Alex shows some 94D spectra of probably of his own and these may be some % of the ones I have.
  171. \bibitem[Filippenko(1997)]{filippenko1997} Filippenko, A. V. 1997, \araa, 35, 309 % % ADS reference. % Annual Reviews in Astronomy \& Astrophysics % The reference is in Riess et al 1998 on cosmology. % An observer's review of optical supernova spectra and spectral classification. % But note that this paper precedes the discovery of hypernovae.
  172. \bibitem[Filippenko \&~Matheson(1993)]{filippenko1993} Filippenko, A. V., \& Matheson, T. 1993, IAU Circ.~5787 % {filippenko1993} % SN 1993J becomes IIb by May 11 or about 44 days after explosion. % Say 40 days in round numbers. They call it a IIb.
  173. \bibitem[Filippenko \&~Shields(1990)]{filippenko1990} Filippenko, A. V., \&~Shields, J. C. 1990, IAU Circ.~5111 %IAUC Reference % Supernova 1990aa Ic. % Reports a 1990sep27 spectrum from 3900--9800 A with 12 A resolution.
  174. \bibitem[Filippenko et al.(1990)]{filippenko1990} Filippenko, A. V., Porter, A. C., \& Sargent, W. L. W. 1990, AJ, 100, 1575 % % ADS Reference % The type Ic (helium-poor Ib) supernova 1987M - Transition to the supernebular phase. % An early well-observed Ic, but not the prototype: 83I and 83V are.
  175. \bibitem[Filippenko et al.(1992b)]{filippenko1992b} Filippenko, A. V., et al. AJ, 104, 1543 % % ADS Reference % The type Ic (helium-poor Ib) supernova 1987M - Transition to the supernebular phase. % An early well-observed Ic, but not the prototype: 83I and 83V are.
  176. \bibitem[Filippenko et al.(1992c)]{filippenko1992c} Filippenko, A.~V., et al. 1992, ApJ, 384, L15 % % ADS reference. % Title: The peculiar Type IA SN 1991T - Detonation of a white dwarf? % The SN~1991T paper: Alex seems to have been first with % the Fe III identifications and with the sandwich idea. % A pretty good paper actually. % The authors read Filippenko, A. V., Richmond, M. W., % Matheson, T., Shields, J. C., etc. There are 16 authors. % They also have some original % SN 1990N spectra.
  177. \bibitem[Filippenko et al.(1992d)]{filippenko1992d} Filippenko, A. V., et al. 1992, AJ, 104, 1543 % % ADS Reference % 13 coauthors % Title: The subluminous, spectroscopically peculiar type IA supernova 1991bg in the % elliptical galaxy NGC 4374. % They beat Bruno to print on this SN Ia.
  178. \bibitem[Filippenko et al.(1995)]{filippenko1995} Filippenko, A. V., et al. 1995, \apj, 450, L11 % Helium in Ic's. 18 authors running Filippenko, Barth, Matheson, Armus, etc. % We present a series of spectra of SN 1994I in M51, starting 1 week prior % to maximum brightness. The nebular phase began about 2 months after the % explosion; together with the rapid decline of the optical light, this % suggests that the ejected mass was small. Although lines of He I in the % optical region are weak or absent, consistent with the Type Ic % classification, we detect strong He I lambda 10830 absorption during % the first month past maximum. Thus, if SN 1994I is a typical % Type Ic supernova, the atmospheres of these objects cannot be completely % devoid of helium. The emission-line widths are smaller than predicted by the % model of Nomoto and coworkers, in which the iron core of a low-mass % carbon-oxygen star collapses. They are, however, larger than in Type Ib % supernovae.
  179. \bibitem[Finkelberg(2005)]{finkelberg2005} Finkelberg, M. 2005, Greeks and Pre-Greeks: Aegean Prehistory and the Greek Heroic Tradition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) % Seems a pretty good modern book on Bronze Age Greeks. % Some of it is rather technical. Probably reading chapters 1, 7, and 8 is % enough for the layperson. % I liked that Mopsos son of Manto (a prophetess) son of Tiresias % has been identified in history. A legendary hero---albeit a minor one---actually % finds a place in records. See p. 150--153. % DF 214 .F56 2005 at University of Oklahoma. % History book.
  180. \bibitem[Finley(1976)]{finley1976} Finley, M. I. 1976, Aspects of Antiquity (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books) % Finley's reputation still stands pretty high % in Greco-Roman history. Worth re-reading. % An interesting point is that Finley sees no options % for Diocletion in re-ordering the world from the % conservative way he did it. I'd say that Diocletion % needed to try and engender a scientific and technological % revolution. Probably it would have mostly failed, but % it would have helped some way to getting humanity out % of the pit of the cycle or rise and fall. % History book.
  181. \bibitem[Firestone \&~Ekstr\"om(2004)]{firestone2004} Firestone, R. B., \& Ekstr\"om, L. P. 2004, LBNL Isotopes Project-Lunds Universitet: WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes (Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), http://ie.lbl.gov/toi/ % The great online site for radioactive nuclides. % Main page. % Si-32 page: hl 150 y = 54787.5d0 = % P-32 page: hl 14.262 d b- % Sc-44 page: hl 3.927 h 8 = 0.1636 d % But Sc-44 has a long-lived metastable state, but Ti-44 virtually doesn't decay to that state: % see the Ti-44 page decay levels diagram. % Ti-44 page: hl 63 y 3 = 23010.75 d % Mn-53 page: hl 3.74e+6 y = 1.366035E+9 d % Fe-53 page: hl 8.51 m = 5.909722381167942d-3 d % Fe-55 page: hl 2.73 y 3 = 997.1 d % Fe-60 page: hl 1.5d+6 y = 547875000 d b- % Co-55 page: hl 17.53 h 3 = 0.7304 d % Co-56 page: hl 77.27 d 3 % Co-57 page: hl 271.79 d 9 % Co-60 page: hl b- % metastable Co-60 page: hl b- % Ni-56 page: hl 6.077 d 12 % Ni-57 page: hl 35.60 h 6 = 1.483 d % Ni-59 page: hl 7.6d+4 y = 27759000. d % Cu-59 page: hl 81.5 s = 9.432870370370371E-4 d
  182. \bibitem[Fisher(2000)]{fisher2000} Fisher, A. 2000, Ph.D. thesis, University of Oklahoma % % ADS reference. % But it is a thesis, and so it is not really on-line at ADS. % Title: Direct analysis of type Ia supernovae spectra. % Abstract: This work describes how to use and modify the % highly parameterized spectrum synthesis code (SYNNEW). SYNNEW can be used to derive % information directly from type Ia supernovae spectra. % The name SYNEW never caught on and the code continues to be called SYNOW. % This is good SYNOW version 1.0 reference. A SYNOW reference.
  183. \bibitem[Fisher et al.(1999)]{fisher1999} Fisher, A., Branch, D., Hatano, K., \&~Baron, E. 1999, \mnras, 304, 67 % % ADS reference. % Title: On the spectrum and nature of the peculiar Type IA supernova 1991T. % 91T again. They go for 1.4 M_sun of Ni-56 and super-Chandrasekhar, but it's uncertain % because of the uncertain luminosity because of the uncertain distance. They don't estimate % a total mass, but suggest it is of order a few tenths above Chandrasekhar. % They also find a persistent Na I line that may mark the iron core boundary at 9000 km/s. % The line is still there at 59 days past maximum. % They tentatively identify a C II 6580 absorption at about 6300 A in the premax spectra. % But frankly, it isn't there in the premax specta I have or they are a bit wrong about % the position.
  184. \citet{fleck1984} \bibitem[Fleck \& Canfield(1984)]{fleck1984} Fleck, Jr., J. A., \&~Canfield, E. H. 1984, Journal of Computational Physics, 54, 508 % % SCIRUS reference. % Title: A random walk procedure for improving the computational efficiency of the implicit Monte Carlo method % for nonlinear radiation transport. % These guys pre-emptively stole the giantsteps idea from me and Paolo. % But onto something better.
  185. \bibitem[Folatelli et al.(2006)]{follatelli2006} Folatelli, G., et al. 2006, \apj, 641, 1039 % % ADS Reference % 25 coauthors % SN 2005bf: A Possible Transition Event between Type Ib/c Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts % A very long rise 2-maximum Ibc SN. % Changed from Ic-like to Ib-like as it aged.
  186. \bibitem[Foley et al.(2003)]{foley2003} Foley, R. J. 2003, PASP, 115, 1220 % % ADS Reference % 9 coauthors including Filippenko and Mazzali. % Optical Photometry and Spectroscopy of the SN 1998bw-like Type Ic Supernova 2002ap Ic hypernova. % Some SN 2002ap spectra, but not those in David Branch's archive.
  187. \bibitem[Ford et al.(1993)]{ford1993} Ford, C. H., Herbst, W., Richmond, M. W., Baker, M. L., Filippenko, A. V., Treffers, R. R., Paik, Y., \& Benson, P. J. 1993, AJ, 106, 1101 % % ADS Reference % Title: CCD photometry of three Type IA supernovae - V, R, and I light curves. % 91M, 91T, 92G. % The maxima are given on p. 1109.
  188. \bibitem[Ford \& Pettengill(1992)]{ford1992} Ford, P. G., & Pettengill, G. H. 1992, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 13103 %ADS Reference % see http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1992/92JE01085.shtml % for the original paper, but it is behind a paywall % The source of a useful Mercator topogrphic map of Venus. % For versions of the map see: % Guide to Magellan Image Interpretation: % Chapter 3. The Non-SAR Experiments Jeffrey J. Plaut % Views of the Solar System by Calvin J. Hamilton % NSSDC Photo Gallery probably % (Ford & Pettengill 1992)
  189. \bibitem[Fraknoi et al.(1997)]{fraknoi1997} Fraknoi, A., Morrison, D., & Wolf, S. 1997, Voyages Through the Universe (Fort Worth, Texas: Saunders College Publishing) (FMW) % Somewhat dated, but I'm familiar with it. As with all good % intro astro books, there are some points they discuss that others evade. % (FMW-???)
  190. \bibitem[Frank(1952)]{frank1952} Frank, A. 1952, Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, translator: B. M. Mooyaart-Doubleday, introduction: Eleanor Roosevelt (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.) % Anne Frank (1929--1944) % (Wikipedia). % Anne Frank. % History book. Biography book.
  191. \bibitem[Fransson(1982)]{fransson1982} Fransson, C. 1982, A\&A, 111, 140 % X-ray and UV-emission from supernova shock waves in stellar winds: Paper I
  192. \bibitem[Fransson(1984a)]{fransson1984a} Fransson, C. 1984a, A\&A, 132, 115 % Line profiles from supernovae UV with circumstellar interaction: Paper II
  193. \bibitem[Fransson(1984b)]{fransson1984b} Fransson, C. 1984b, A\&A, 133, 264 % Comptonization and UV emission lines from Type II supernovae: Paper IV
  194. \bibitem[Fransson(1984d)]{fransson1984d} Fransson, C. 1984d, Physica Scripta, T7, 50 % Comptonization and UV emission lines from Type II supernovae: Paper ``V''. % % ADS reference. % Title: The effects of Comptonization in type II supernovae. % This is just a 2-page paper that gives a kind of summary of the series. % The ADS reference doesn't link to an eprint. % I've a copy in my Branch non-Ia collaboration papers.
  195. \bibitem[Fransson et al.(1984c)]{fransson1984c} Fransson, C., Benvenuti, P., Wamsteker, W., Gordon, C., Hempe, K., Reimers, D., Palumbo, G. G. C., \&~Panagia, N. 1984c, A\&A, 132, 1 % ADS reference. % Title: Physical conditions in the UV line emitting region of supernova 1979c in NGC 4321. % Comptonization and UV emission lines from Type II supernovae: Paper III
  196. \bibitem[Fransson et al.(1996)]{fransson1996} Fransson, C., Lundqvist, P., \&~Chevalier, R. A. 1996, \apj, 461, 993 % Circumstellar Interaction in SN 1993J. % radio, X-rays, and UV.
  197. \bibitem[Fransson et al.(2005)]{fransson2005} Fransson, C., et al. 2005, \apj, 622, 991 % 16 coauthors including Eddie Baron!! % Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-based Observations of SN 1993J and SN 1998S: CNO Processing in the Progenitors. % This paper shows the 650--2600 day development of the Mg II 2800 line in SN 1993J IIb.
  198. \bibitem[French(1971)]{french1971} French, A. P. 1971, Newtonian Mechanics: The M.I.T. Introductory Physics Series (New York: W.W. Norton \& Company), (FR) % Still a darn good book on mechanics at the intermediate level. % If I knew everything in this book, I'd know a lot more than % I do.
  199. \bibitem[French(2007)]{french2007} French, T. 2007, In the Woods, (New York: Viking Press) % Another Irish mystery with fey damsels, dark strangers, haunted bicycles. % Did I mention leprechauns. % Well reviewed in % % The Washington Post. % Mystery book.
  200. \bibitem[Freedman \& Kaufmann(2005)]{freedman(2005} Freedman, R. A., \& Kaufmann, W. J. III, 2005, Universe, 7th edition (New York: W. H. Freeman & Company) (FK) % A slightly elevated intro astro book. % Kaufmann has left this veil of tears. % FK-???
  201. \bibitem[Freedman et al.(1994)]{freedman1994} Freedman, W. L., et al. 1994, \apj, 427, 628 % % ADS Reference % 15 coauthors % The Hubble Space Telescope Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. 1: The discovery of Cepheids and a new distance to M81. % True distance modulus to M81 is determined to be 27.80 +/- 0.20 mag, corresponding to a distance of 3.63 +/- 0.34 Mpc. % mu=5*log(r)+25 or r=10**(mu/5-5) with r in Mpc. % M81 is the host galaxy of SN 1993J IIb.
  202. \bibitem[Frieman(2005)]{frieman2005} Frieman, J. 2005, IAU Circ., 8616 % % ADS reference. % Title: Supernovae 2005ex-2005gj and 2005go-2005gy. % Follow-up (but not much of one) to discovery of SN 2005gj Ia/IIn reported by % <./ref.html#barentine2005">Barentine et al (2005). % See IAUC 8616
  203. \bibitem[Frye(1983)]{frye1983} Frye, N. 1983, The Great Code: The Bible and Literature (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers) % Stimulating, allusive, elusive. % Not really the Bible and literature, but the Bible as a unified % literary product. Yes the editors and writers of the Bible spanned % centuries and there are tensions between their ideas and programs. % But the Bible can be read as a whole and that is what the % religious have always done: it's important meaning % for religion and art arises from a unified view. % Of course, for history one has to treat the Bible with % great caution. % % It is one of those books that I find I can read again and % again. Well I re-read it when I'm too weary to read anything new. % It gave me that very useful phrase ``demon parody'' that is so % useful in political history. % % Northrop Frye (Wikipedia) % was a well known literary critic who was a Canadian in his spare time. % % There are interesting parallels in science to Frye's % exposition of literary advance: metaphorical writing corresponds % to mythical thinking, metonymic writing to a priori theory % or natural myth science, descriptive writing to modern science with % balanced theory and experiment. % History book. Literary book.
  204. \bibitem[Furley(1987)]{furley1987} Furley, D. 1987, The Greek Cosmologists: Volume~1: The Formation of the Atomic Theory and its Earliest Critics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) % I think this is a great book: scholarly, but accessible to the layperson. % A lot of inference is needed to figure out just what some of % the Prescratics actually thought. Maybe David Furley is too % clever, but everything seems right as rain to me. % Furley never seems to have brought out the 2nd volume. % History book. Science book. Philosophy book. % Fu-??? % see David Furley (1922--2010) David John, but he didn't use the J. % see David Furley (1922--2010) in German % see Amazon: David J. Furley 1987, The Greek Cosmologists)
  205. \bibitem[Furneaux Jordan(1970)]{furneaux jordan1970} Furneaux Jordan, R. 1970, A Concise History of Western Architecture (: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.) % A very readable book especially when one needs distraction from problems. % Good pictures. If I remembered it all, I'd know a lot more about % architecture than I do. % Oddly enough Furneaux Jordan also wrote detective fiction as % Robert Player (Wikipedia). % History book.

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  206. \bibitem[Galama et al.(1998)]{galama1998} Galama, T., et al. 1998, Nature, 395, 670 % About 48 coauthors. % % ADS reference % An unusual supernova in the error box of the gamma-ray burst of 25 April 1998. % The discovery paper for SN 1998bw, the famous SN Ic_hypernova coincident with % GRB 980425.
  207. \bibitem[Gal-Yam et al.(2002)]{gal-yam2002} Gal-Yam, A., Ofek, E. O., Shemmer, O. 2002, MNRAS, 332, L73 % % ADS reference % Supernova 2002ap: the first month % A Ic hypernova without a gamma-ray burst, but weakish hypernova. % An it may have had a jet.
  208. \bibitem[Gangopadhyaya et al.(2011)]{gangopadhyaya2011} Gangopadhyaya, A., Mallow, J. V., \& Rasinariu, C. 2011, {Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction} (Singapore: World Scientific) % Pretty good it seems. Has a few typos
  209. \bibitem[Garavini et al.(2004)]{garavini2004} Garavini, G. 2004, AJ, 128, 387 % % ADS reference % 18+ coauthors. % Title: Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Peculiar SN 1999aa.
  210. \bibitem[Garavini et al.(2005)]{garavini2005} Garavini, G. 2005, AJ, 130, 2278 % % ADS reference % 27+ coauthors. % Title: Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Unusual Type Ia SN 1999ac.
  211. \bibitem[Garavini et al.(2007)]{garavini2007} Garavini, G. 2005, A\&A, in press, astro-ph/0702569 % % ADS reference % 14 coauthors. % Title: ESC observations of SN 2005cf: II. Optical Spectroscopy and the high velocity features. % They've scooped Branch et al. 2007 PreMax a bit: quite a bit. But they still have not found % the day -12 90N spectrum even though Stefano Benetti is on this paper.
  212. \bibitem[Garnavich et al.(2004)]{garnavich2004} Garnavich, P. M. 2004, \apj, 613, 1120 % % ADS reference % 12 coauthors. % Title: The Luminosity of SN 1999by in NGC 2841 and the Nature of ``Peculiar'' Type Ia Supernovae.
  213. \bibitem[Gaskell et al.(1986)]{gaskell1986} Gaskell, C. M., Cappellaro, E., Dinerstein, H. L., Garnett, D. R., Harkness, R. P., \&~Wheeler, J. C. 1986, \apj, 306, L77 % % ADS reference. % Type Ib supernovae 1983n and 1985f - Oxygen-rich late time spectra. % On SN 1983N in NGC 5236 (M83) and SN 1984L Ib in NGC 991.
  214. \bibitem[Georgi(1982)]{georgi1982} Georgi, H. 1982, Lie Algebras in Particle Physics: From Isospin to Unified Theories (Reading, Massachusetts: Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Company, Inc.)
  215. \bibitem[Geltman(1962)]{geltman1962} Geltman, S. 1962, ApJ, 136, 935 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Bound-Free Absorption Coefficient of the Hydrogen Negative Ion. % Referenced in mihalas1978. Probably still useful, but probably improved % on.
  216. \bibitem[Gere(2006)]{gere2006} Gere, C. 2006, The Tomb of Agamemnon (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press) % A book in a series on the Wonders of the World. % It's a pretty good little book. Essentially it is an % an essay on evolving cultural significance of Bronze-age Mycenae % The peroration sums it up: % ``Can we finally acknowledge the battle-scarred % heroes of Mycenae without recruiting them to fight?'' % History book.
  217. \bibitem[Ghez(2001)]{ghez2001} Ghez, R. 2001, Diffusion Phenomena: Cases and Studies (New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers) % Seems a pretty good book on diffusion. % multi-d equation on p. 32 and solution on p. 106.
  218. \bibitem[Gibson \&~Stetson(2001)]{gibson2001} Gibson, B. K., \&~Stetson, P. B. 2001, ApJ, 547, L103 % Title: Supernova 1991T and the Value of the Hubble Constant % They find $D=13.0\pm1.7\,$Mpc for the host galaxy NGC 4527. % fisher1999 used D=16.4 Mpc and so scaling down from fisher1999's % 1.45 M_sun of Ni-56, one gets 0.82 which is only at the high end of % the normal range. Actually Howell (2006) give Ni-56 mass .855. % Who is right. Not me I'd guess.
  219. \bibitem[Gies \&~Gies(1994)]{gies1994} Gies, F., \& Gies, J. 1994, Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.) % Good popular account of Medieval technology. % Easy reading. % Science book. History book.
  220. \bibitem[Gilmore(1962)]{gilmore1962} Gilmore, M. P. 1962, The Age of Humanism (New York: Harper & Row Publishers) % Worth rereading at some point. A sort of remedy for % The Waning of the Middle Ages. % The illustrations could have been a lot better. % History book.
  221. \bibitem[Godwin(2007)]{godwin2007} Godwin, P. 2007, When the Crocodile Eats the Sun: A Memoir of Africa (Erewhon: Little, Brown) % About Zimbabwe and the Mugabe regime. % Well reviewed in the Washington Post: % review. % Little, Brown site. % History book.
  222. \bibitem[Goldberg(1989)]{goldberg1989} Goldberg, D. 1989, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley) % genetic algorithms
  223. \bibitem[Goldstein et al.(2002)]{goldstein2002} Goldstein, H., Poole, C., \&~Safko, J. 2002, Classical Mechanics, 3rd Edition (San Francisco: Addison-Wesley) (Go) % Lots of good stuff in it. % But there is almost a typo per page: it's shameful. % Also I think it is about time that a more modern classical mechanics % book took over that avoided what seems to me to be useless % and/or obsolete formalism.
  224. \bibitem[Gomez \&~Lopez(1998)]{gomez1998} Gomez, G., \& Lopez, R. 1998, AJ, 115, 1096 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Canarias Type IA Supernova Archive. II. A Standard Spectral Evolution Sequence. % They show 4 spectra of 91M of which only 1 is clearly in % the table in Gomez et al. (1996). % 1998mar publication.
  225. \bibitem[Gomez \&~Lopez(1998b)]{gomez1998b} Gomez, G., \& Lopez, R. 1998b, Ap\&SS, 263, 295 % % ADS reference. % Title: Standard Spectral Evolutionary Sequence for Type 1a Supernovae. % A very short paper with some 91M spectra. % 1998jun publication.
  226. \bibitem[Gomez et al.(1996)]{gomez1996} Gomez, G., Lopez, R., \& Sanchez, F. 1996, AJ, 112, 2094 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Canaries Type IA Supernovae Archive (I). % A reference for SNe Ia SN 1991M (see Table 1) among other things. % SN 1990N (p. 2107).
  227. \bibitem[Gould(1978)]{gould1978} Gould, R. J. 1978, ApJ, 219, 250 % % ADS reference. % Title: Radiative recombination of complex ions. % Probably pretty dated now, but the formula may still % be of some use for comparison to more advanced results. % I've a few notes in the reference folder.
  228. \bibitem[Graham et al.(1986)]{graham1986} Graham, J. R., Meikle, W. P. S., Allen, D. A., Longmore, A. J., \&~Williams, P. M. 1986, MNRAS, 218, 93 % % ADS reference. % Discovery of a large mass of iron in a type I supernova. They mean 83N. % On SN 1983N in NGC 5236 (M83) and SN 1984L Ib in NGC 991.
  229. \bibitem[Greene(2003)]{green2003} Greene, N. R. 2003, The Physics Teacher, 401, 409 % All about the candela and luminous intensity.
  230. \bibitem[Greene(2004)]{greene2004} Greene, B. 2004, {The Fabric of the Cosmos} (New York: Vintage Books), (Gre) % It seems an excellent popular book on % where fundamental physics stood as of 2004. % Lots of string theory stuff.
  231. \bibitem[Greenstein(2005)]{greenstein2005} Greenstein, G., & Zajonc, A.G. 2005, { The Quantum Challenge, Second Edition : Modern Research on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics} (Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.)) See also George Greenstein & Arthur G. Zajonc, 2005, The Quantum Challenge, Second Edition : Modern Research on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.).
  232. \bibitem[Grevesse \& Sauval(1998)]{grevesse1998} Grevesse, N., \& Sauval, A. J. 1998, Space Science Reviews, 85, 161 % % ADS reference. Not available online at ADS, but at the % linked Springer site srcoll down a bit and a pdf version is % available on the right hand side. % Directly, it's at % % Springer. % Title: Standard solar composition. % Primordial solar nebular composition. % This is not the last word, but there is still some controversy, % and so were are waiting for the last word. % I've some notes on this in my reference folder and % a reprint in folder public_not.
  233. \bibitem[Griffiths(2005)]{griffiths2005} Griffiths, D. J. 2005, {\it Introduction to Quantum Mechanics} (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall), (Gr) % Seems an excellent undergraduate quantum mechanics textbook. % But familiarity breed quibbles.
  234. \bibitem[Griffiths(1999)]{griffiths1999} Griffiths, D. J. 1999, {\it Introduction to Electrodynamics} (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall) % Seems an excellent undergraduate textbook. % Cuts out a lot of the bafflegab of older books.
  235. \bibitem[Grinspoon(2004)]{grinspoon2004} Grinspoon, D. 2004, Lonely Planets: The Natural Philosophy of Alien Life (New York: HarperCollins Publishers) % It grows on you. % Science book. History book. % (Gr-???)
  236. \bibitem[Grisswold(2007)]{grisswold2007} Griswold, E. 2007 Wideawake Field (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux) % Elizabeth Griswold. % The poetry of terrors of our time that leave me pretty much speechless. % Rhyme with the most gentle of touch. % Reviewed sor-of the Washington Times: % % review. % Poetry book.
  237. \bibitem[Grossman(2006)]{grossman2006} Grossman, E. 2006 High Tech Trash: Digital Devices, Hidden Toxics, and Human Health (Washington, D.C.: Island Press) % All about the poisons in e-junk. % See the % Science magazine review. % Science book.
  238. \bibitem[Guth(1972)]{guth1972} Guth, H. P. 1972, Concise English Handbook (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc.) % A standard English handbook. I just happen to own a copy.

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  239. \bibitem[Hachisu(1991)]{hachisu91} Hachisu, I., Matsuda, T., Nomoto, K., \&~Shigeyama, T. 1991, \apj, 368, L27 % On Rayleigh-Taylor mixing and models for Ib/c's.
  240. \bibitem[Hagen(1837)]{hagen1837} Hagen, Gotthilf 1837, Grundz\"uge der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung (Berlin: D\"ummler) % https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotthilf_Hagen % HAGEN, G. 1837, Grundzuege der Wahrscheinlichkeit-Rechnung. D¨ummler, Berlin. % https://projecteuclid.org/download/pdf_1/euclid.ss/1009212248 % Confirms 1837 for Hagen's derivation in a book for Hagen deriviation
  241. \bibitem[Hall(1956)]{hall1956} Hall, A. R. 1956, The Scientific Revolution: 1500--1800 (Boston: The Beacon Press) % I should read it again to fully assimilate it. % It's one of the books that % H. Floris Cohen % ``takes to task''. % History book. Science Book.
  242. \bibitem[Hall(1994)]{hall1994} Hall, M. B. 1994, The Scientific Renaissance: 1450--1630 (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) % A reprint from 1962. I should read it again to fully assimilate it. % History book. Science Book.
  243. \bibitem[Halliday et al.(2001)]{halliday2001} Halliday, D., Resnick, R., \&~Walker, J. 2001, Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition (New York: John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.), (HRW) % The old standby of intro physics books. % HRW-???
  244. \bibitem[Hamann(1981)]{hamman1981} Hamann, W.-R. 1981, A\&A, 93, 353 % % Title: Line formation in expanding atmospheres - On the validity of the Sobolev % approximation. % Hamann shows that the Sobolev method can be systematically in error for % moving stellar atmospheres. % But is criticisms of the line-coupling are out of date given the correct % line coupling formalisms of % Olsen (1982) % and % Bartunov & Mozgovoi (1987).
  245. \bibitem[Hamuy et al.(2002)]{hamuy2002} Hamuy, M., et al. 2002, AJ, 124, 417 % % ADS reference. % % ADS reference for the erratum which gives the Julian dates in Table 1. % Optical and Infrared Spectroscopy of SN 1999ee and SN 1999ex. % 99ee is a Ia. 99ex is Ibc. % 20 coauthors.
  246. \bibitem[Hamuy et al.(2003)]{hamuy2003} Hamuy, M., et al. 2003, Nature, 424, 651 % % ADS Reference % Title: An asymptotic-giant-branch star in the progenitor system of a type Ia supernova. % Type Ia supernova SN2002ic, indicating the presence of large amounts of circumstellar material.
  247. % \citep[e.g.,][p.~4]{handley2019} \bibitem[Handley(2019)]{handley2019} Handley, W. 2019, arXiv:1908.09139 % arXiv:1908.09139. % Title: Curvature tension: evidence for a closed universe
  248. \bibitem[Hanuschik \&~Dachs(1987)]{hanuschik1987} Hanuschik, R. W., \&~Dachs, J. 1987, A\&A, 182, L29 % the earliest Bochum event paper. It is by the Bochum group.
  249. \bibitem[Harkness et al.(1987)]{harkness1987} Harkness, R. P., et al. 1987, \apj, 317, 355 % ADS reference. % On SN 1983N in NGC 5236 (M83) and SN 1984L Ib in NGC 991. % 11 coauthors. % The early spectral phase of type Ib supernovae - Evidence for helium. % These are the prototypes of the Ib's except for the 1954A which was % poorly observed by modern standards and only seen as an odd-ball until later recognized.
  250. \bibitem[Harkness(1991)]{harkness1991} Harkness, R. P. 1991, in {ESO/EIPC Workshop: SN~1987A and Other Supernovae,} ed.~I.~J.~Danziger \&~K.~Kj\"ar (Garching: ESO), 447 % Spectrum and light curve calculations with W7 % more on Ia's, but no % mention of Ti; but he does show that line and electron % opacity dominate from 1000 to 100000 A over pure absorption % opacity. % shows that expansion opacity causes the UV deficiency of Ia's. % Well he doesn't exactly say that the reheating drives the % luminosity from 4 days after the explosion and in fact I % I suspect it drives the luminosity from much earlier: % from hours after the explosion? See p. 454. % Young et al. 1995 say it drives the whole thing which can't % be quite right.
  251. \bibitem[Hartmann et al.(1997)]{hartmann1997} Hartmann, D. H., et al. 1997, Nuclear Physics A, 621, 83-91 % http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TVB-3SPG08Y-23&_coverDate=08%2F04%2F1997&_alid=481267661&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5530&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000053976&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1617289&md5=93fc6533b1e83099c3e56c5e033992ce % Cas A dim because it was shrouded in a dust envelope that the SN shock destroyed. % Is suppose the UV flash at breakout is meant to have destroyed the dust. % I've no idea if this paper's idea is favored or still current at all.
  252. \bibitem[Hartmann \& Impey(2002)]{hartmann(2002} Hartmann, W. K., \& Impey, C. 2002, Astronomy: The Cosmic Journey, 6th Edition (Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole) (HI) % A soon to be dated book. It is probably about the best % of the intro astro books that I've seen. But, of course, % it doesn't have everything. Annoyingly, it doesn't have % any color pictures. % (HI-???)
  253. \bibitem[Harutyunyan et al.(2005)]{harutyunyan2005} Harutyunyan, A., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., \& Turatto, M. 2005, in ASP Conf. Ser. 342, 1604--2004: Supernovae as Cosmological Lighthouses, ed. M.~Turatto, S.~Benetti, L.~Zamperi, \&~W.~Shea (San Francisco: ASP), 258 % % ADS reference. % Title: Supernova Spectra Comparison Tool. % This must be the forerunner of what Avet discussed in Cefalu. % In any case it is the competition. % Nothing else on Avet's tool as of 2007jun10.
  254. \bibitem[Hatano et al.(1999a)]{hatano1999a} Hatano, K., Branch, D., Fisher, A., Baron, E., \& Filippenko, A. V. 1999, \apj, 525, 881 % % ADS reference. % Title: On the High-Velocity Ejecta of the Type IA Supernova SN 1994D. % The original high-velocity features paper. 2-componets of Fe II and Ca II in SN 1994D Ia. % They say above 20000 km/s and below 16000 km/s.
  255. \bibitem[Hatano et al.(1999b)]{hatano1999b} Hatano, K., Branch, D., Fisher, A., Millard, J., \& Baron, E. 1999, ApJS, 121, 233 % % ADS reference. % Title: Ion Signatures in Supernova Spectra. % Useful plots of reference line Sobolev optical depths for characteristic SN conditions % and compositions and plots of single ion spectra for characteristic SN conditions.
  256. \bibitem[Hauschildt \&~Baron(1999)]{hauschildt1999} Hauschildt, P. H., \&~Baron, E. 1999, J.~Comp.~Applied Math., 109, 41, arXiv:astro-ph/9808182 % Title: Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem. % A good PHOENIX reference with references therein reference. % It only seems available online at % http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9808182.
  257. \bibitem[Hauschildt \&~Baron(2005)]{hauschildt2005} Hauschildt, P. H., \&~Baron, E. 2005, Mitteilungen der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg, 24, 63 % See % Mitteilungen der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg, but the paper % isn't online. % http://www.math.uni-hamburg.de/math/mathges/zeitschrift/Band24-Inhalt.html % for the contents. % Title: Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem. % A good PHOENIX reference with references therein reference. % The only trouble is that that there is no way to get a hold of a copy.
  258. Hauschildt, P. H., \&~Baron, E. 2006, A\&A, 451, 273 %ADS reference. % Title: A 3D radiative transfer framework: I. non-local operator splitting % and continuum scattering problems. % The formalism for 3-d PHOENIX. They've made a lot of progress since 2006.
  259. \bibitem[Hauschildt et al.(1996)]{hauschildt1996} Hauschildt, P. H., Baron, E., Starrfield, S., \& Allard, F. 1996, \apj, 462, 386 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Effects of Fe II Non-LTE on Nova Atmospheres and Spectra. % This is the PHOENIX Fe II model paper. % 617 levels and 13675 lines in the NLTE formalism.
  260. \bibitem[Hecht \& Zajac(1976)]{hecht1976} Hecht, E., & Zajac, A. 1976, Optics (Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company), (HZ) % Dated now, but still full of good stuff.
  261. \bibitem[Heilbroner(1964)]{heilbroner1964} Heilbroner, R. L. 1964, The Worldly Philosophers (New York: Simon and Schuster) % Robert L. Heilbroner (1919--2005) % (Wikipedia). % Probably should re-read it since I can't remember much of what it said. % History book. Biography book.
  262. \bibitem[Heisenberg(2009)]{heisenberg2009} Heisenberg, M. 2009, Nature, 459, 164 % http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v459/n7244/full/459164a.html % Title: Is free will an illusion? % He seems to say that quantum probabilism affects thought % http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Heisenberg Martin Heisenberg % son of the Heisenberg.
  263. \bibitem[Hernandez et al.(2000)]{hernandez2000} Hernandez, M., et al. 2000, MNRAS, 319, 223 % % ADS Reference. % 26 coauthors % Title: An early-time infrared and optical study of the Type Ia Supernova 1998bu in M96.
  264. \bibitem[Hicken et al.(2007)]{hicken2007} Hicken, M., Garnavich, P. M., Prieto, J. L., Blondin, S., DePoy, D. L., Kirshner, R. P., \&~Parrent, J. 2007, ApJ, 669, L17 %ADS reference. % Title: The Luminous and Carbon-rich Supernova 2006gz: A Double Degenerate Merger? % Spectra and light curves of SN 2006gz show the strongest signature of unburned carbon % and one of the slowest fading light curves ever seen in a Type Ia event [?m15(B)=0.69+/-0.04]. % The early-time Si II velocity is low, implying it was slowed by an envelope of % unburned material. Our best estimate of the luminosity implies MV=-19.74 % and the production of ~1.2 Msolar of 56Ni. This suggests a super-Chandrasekhar mass progenitor. % A double degenerate merger is consistent with these observations.
  265. \bibitem[Hillebrandt et al.(2007)]{hillebrandt} Hillebrandt, W., Sim, S. A., \& R\"opke, F. K. 2007, A\&A, in press, astro-ph/0702344 % % ADS reference. % Title: Off-center explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs: an explanation % of super-bright type Ia supernovae? % Dissenters from the super-Chan idea for SN 2003fg. % Still in press as of 2007mar13.
  266. \bibitem[Hirata et al.(1987)]{hirata1987} Hirata, K., et al. 1987, Phys. Rev. Letters, 58, 1490 % One of the two 87A neutrino burst discovery papers. K. Hirata was a junior % member of the team who just happened to alphabetically % first among the Japanese contigent. % I met her somewhere way back when 1987A was young. % But she's not on the list at Les Houches, Santa Cruz, % or Elba. I thought it was at Les Houches, but then % I thought Mario Livio introduced her and he wasn't at % Les Houches. % There are about 22 coauthors. Other than KH, the only one I know at all is Al Mann. % I've at least met him.
  267. \bibitem[Herrero \&~Najarro(2005)]{herrero2005} Herrero, A., \&~Najarro, F. 2005, in Proceedings of "Massive Stars and High-Energy Emission in OB Associations", ed. G. Rauw, Y. Naz\'e, R. Blomme, \&~E. Gosset (Li\`ege: JENAM), 21 % % ADS Reference % Title: Parameters of massive stars in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. % We present in this contribution a review of recent results of parameters of massive OB stars in % the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds and nearby spirals. The review is timely because of the strong lowering % of the temperature scale of Galactic OB stars produced by the new model atmospheres, including sphericity, % blanketing and mass-loss, that are also discussed, and because of the boost suffered by extragalactic % stellar physics in the last years. The effects on the determination of mass-loss and the Modified Wind % Momentum-Luminosity Relationship are discussed, and a comparison with evolutionary models is provided. % We finally present a comparison of abundances from OB stars and H II regions in Orion and M 33.
  268. \bibitem[H{\"o}flich(1991)]{hoeflich1991} H\"oflich, P. 1991, \aap, 246, 481 % Monte Carlo calculations for axial symmetric, scattering % dominated photospheres have been performed in order to study systematically % the effects due to the direction dependent luminosity and to reinvestigate % the continuum polarization in SN 1987A (M\'endez et al. 1988). We found that % the optical depth and the occultation effects are important for the % interpretation of the observed polarization, and that the differences % between the electron and the density profile are substantial for the % understanding of the observed time dependence of the linear polarization % in SN 1987A. The observed polarization can be well % understood by prolate or oblate ellipsoids (a/b = 0.9 or 1.2) if % SN 1987A is seen at an inclination angle of less than 56^deg^ with a % most probable value of about 40^deg^.
  269. \bibitem[H\"oflich(1995)]{hoeflich1995} H\"oflich, P. 1995, ApJ, 440, 821 % on SN~1993J polarization % using model Monte Carlo calculations.
  270. \bibitem[H\"oflich(1995b)]{hoeflich1995b} H\"oflich, P. 1995, ApJ, 443, 89 % % ADS reference. % Title: Analysis of the type IA supernova SN 1994D. % The M series of delayed-detonation models were newly introduced in this paper. % On p. 103, Peter says m36 is the best of the lot for 94D. % Note on p. 98, Fig. 10, that density and gamma-ray energy-deposition have their % line types interchanged. % On p. 90, Peter says the M series don't have exponential density profiles with velocity/distance, % but m36 does as Figure 10 shows when the correct curve is identified as density. % On p. 104, Peter refers to Jeffery et al. (1994), but I think he means Kirshner et al (1993) % and I think he means 1992A instead of 1994A.
  271. \bibitem[H\"oflich(2005)]{hoeflich2005} H\"oflich, P. 2005, Ap\&SS, 298, 87 % % ADS Reference, but it just gives an abstract. % Title: Radiation Hydrodynamics in Supernovae. % This must be Peter's current NLTE radtran code HYDRA. It's not a Monte Carlo code, except % maybe for gamma-ray deposition. % No astro-ph version. Maybe ApSS doesn't allow any eprints since it's a for profit, % no-page charge paper. % I'll have to ask Peter for a reprint by golly.
  272. \bibitem[H\"oflich et al.(2002)]{hoeflich2002} H\"oflich, P., Gerardy, C. L., Fesen, R. A., \& Sakai, S. 2002, \apj, 568, 791 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Infrared Spectra of the Subluminous Type Ia Supernova SN 1999by % This is also reference for HYDRA. % Also a reference for delayed-detonation model 5p028z22.25 which may be Peter's % current fiducial Ia model.
  273. \bibitem[H{\"o}flich \& Khokhlov(1996)]{hoeflich1996} H\"oflich, P., \&~Khokhlov, A. 1996, \apj, 457, 500 % The most extensive of the old SN~Ia lightcurve papers. % Shows that alpha for models that work for some Ia or another % range from .71 to 1.46. % But almost all of the rise times are too short which shows % that we don't know which alpha to choose. % No correlation with Ni-56. % Maybe a correlation with risetime, but its complex and maybe phoney.
  274. \bibitem[H\"oflich(1992)]{hoeflich1992} H\"oflich, P., Khokhlov, A., \&~M\"uller, E. 1992, A\&A, 259, 549. % ADS reference. % Title: Gamma-ray light curves and spectra for Type IA supernovae % Gamma-ray light curves, spectra, and deposition functions % for their models calculated using a Monte Carlo code. % A pretty detailed treatment.
  275. \bibitem[H\"oflich et al.(2001)]{hoeflich2001} H\"oflich, P., Khokhlov, A., \& Wang, L., 2001, in 20th Texas Conference on Relativistic Astrophysics, ed. J. Craig Wheeler \& Hugo Martel (New York: AIP), 459, astro-ph/0104025 % Bipolar Jet paper. Good summary of their impressive work. % Title: Aspherical Supernova Explosions: Hydrodynamics, % Radiation Transport and Observational Consequences (Plenary Talk) % Latest in the series of bipolar jet explosion model papers. % Low velocity jets seem best, but since the jets are pretty % parameterized I bet they could get out a relatively high % velocity squirt and leave essentially a spherical model % behind.
  276. \bibitem[H\"oflich et al.(1999)]{hoeflich1999} H\"oflich, P., Wheeler, J. C., \&~Wang, L. 1999, ApJ, 521, 179 %, astro-ph/9808086 % Aspherical explosion models for SN 1998bw/GRB980425 % using among other things Monte Carlo calculations % for asymmetrical supernova light curves. % "Aspherical Explosion Models for SN 1998BW/GRB-980425" % astro-ph/9808086"
  277. \bibitem[H{\"o}flich et al.(1996)]{hoeflich1996} H\"oflich, P., Wheeler, J. C., Hines, D. C., \&~Trammell, S. R. 1996, \apj, 459, 307 % Synthetic polarization and flux spectra are presented for aspherical, % electron scattering ominated photospheres of Type II supernovae (SN II's) % in general and the specific case of SN 1993J. Monte Carlo calculations % are based on the following assumptions: (1) ellipsoidal envelopes with % power-law density profiles; (2) level population given by local % thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE); (3) pure electron scattering for continuum % opacities; (4) lines treated in a Sobolev approximation with an % assumed constant thermalization fraction; (5) line transitions result % in depolarization; and (6) the temperature structure is given by a gray % extended atmosphere.
  278. \bibitem[H{\"o}flich et al.(1998)]{hoeflich1998} H\"oflich, P., Wheeler, J. C., \&~Thielemann, F.-K. 1998, \apj, 495, 617 % Initial composition influence on Ia nucleosynthesis, lightcurves, spectra. % Gives detailed composition and composition vs velocity.
  279. \bibitem[Hofstadter(2007)]{hofstadter2007} Hofstadter, D. 2007, I Am a Strange Loop (New York: Basic Books) % Douglas Hofstadter of ``Goedel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid'' % has another go at consciousness. % Well reviewed in Science: % review. % Science book.
  280. \bibitem[Hodgman(1959)]{hodgeman1959} Hodgman, C. D. 1959, C.R.C. Standard Mathematical Tables (Cleveland, Ohio: Chemical Rubber Publishing Company) % A useful set of mathametical tables and I own a copy.
  281. \bibitem[Hopf(1934)]{hopf1934} Hopf, E. 1934, Mathematical Problems in Radiative Equilibrium, Cambridge Mathematical Tract No. 31 % Published Cambridge, England in 1934, but it's hard to % figure out what is exactly. % He gives the exact formula for the gray atmosphere limb-darkening % law for the 2nd time according to \cite{placzek1947} and the first % according to \citet{chandrasekhar1944}. I'll trust Placzek.
  282. \bibitem[Houck \&~Fransson(1994)]{houck1994} Houck, J. C., \&~Fransson, C. 1994, American Astronomical Society, 185th AAS Meeting, #79.07; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol.~26, p.~1444 % % ADS reference. % Analysis of the Late Spectra of SN 1993J (IIb) and SN 1994I (Ic).
  283. \bibitem[Houck \&~Frannson(1996)]{houck1996} Houck, J. C., \&~Fransson, C. 1996, \apj, 456, 811 % % ADS reference. % Analysis of the Late Optical Spectra of SN 1993J
  284. \bibitem[Howell et al.(2001)]{howell2001} Howell, D. A., H\"oflich, P., Wang, L., \&~Wheeler, J. C. 2001, \apj, 556, 302 %, astro-ph/0101520 % Subluminous SN 1999by Ia had intrinsic polarization. % Inferred ellipsoidal-like asymmetry 20 %. % I was the referee it seems, but I can't remember this paper at all.
  285. \bibitem[Howell \& Nugent(2004)]{howell2004} Howell, D. A., \& Nugent, P. 2004, Cosmic Explosions in Three Dimensions: Asymmetries in Supernovae and Gamma-ray Bursts ed.~P. H\"oflich, P. Kumar, \& J. C. Wheeler (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press), 151 % % ADS reference. But no online version there. Nothing at astro-ph it seems. % Title: Broad lightcurve SNe Ia: asymmetry or something else? % A reference for SNe Ia SN 1994ae, SN 1999aw, and SN 2001ay among other things.
  286. \bibitem[Howell et al.(2006)]{howell2006} Howell, D. A., et al. 2006, Nature, 443, 308 % This is 2006sep21 issue. % 17 coauthors and 8 is the apj limit. % Super-Chandrasekhar mass Type Ia SN 2003fg % Pretty convincing for super-Chandrasekhar.
  287. \bibitem[Hoyle \& Fowler(1960)]{hoyle1960} Hoyle, F., \&~Fowler, W. A. 1960, ApJ, 132, 565 % According to WW in Les Houches (p.106) this was the seminal paper % on WDs as Ia progenitors.
  288. \bibitem[Hubeny \& Lanz(1992)]{hubeny1992} Hubeny, I., \& Lanz, T. 1992, A\&A, 262, 501 % Hubeny & Lanz % Title: Accelerated complete-linearization method for calculating NLTE model stellar atmospheres. % From p. 504 on, a discussion of the Ng acceleration with a reference back to % Olson, Auer, & Buchler.
  289. \bibitem[Hubeny(2003)]{hubeny2003} Hubeny, I. 2003, in Stellar Atmosphere Modeling, ASP Conference Series, Vol. 288 ed.~Ivan Hubeny, Dimitri Mihalas, \&~Klaus Werner (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), 17 % Title: Accelerated Lambda Iteration: An Overview. % abstract % pdf
  290. \bibitem[Huizinga(1954)]{huizinga1954} Huizinga, J. 1954, The Waning of the Middle Ages (Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor Books) % Johan Huizinga's famous study of the lingering of the medieval % mind well into the 14th and 15th centuries. % It's mostly about France and mostly forgets other European countries. % Some parts I like a lot, but there are longueurs. % History book.
  291. % \citep{hummer1985} \bibitem[Hummer \& Rybicki(1985)]{hummer1985} Hummer, D. G., \&~Rybicki, G. B. 1985, ApJ, 293, 258. % ADS reference. % Title: The Sobolev approximation for line formation with continuous opacity. % HR say it's pretty nifty. % But it's impenetrable and turned out to be sterile. No one much has % used it.
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  293. \bibitem[Hudson \& Lipka(1946)]{hud1946} Hudson, R. G., \& Lipka, J. 1946, A Table of Integrals (New York: John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.) (HL) % HL-8
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  297. \bibitem[INES(2000)]{ines2000} INES ({\it IUE} Newly Extracted Spectra) 2000, The INES Archive Data Server, Version 3.0: {\it IUE} Final Archive (Villafranca del Castillo, Spain: Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics), http://iuearc.vilspa.esa.es/ines/index2.html % % The INES Archive Data Server, Version 3.0: {\it IUE} Final Archive. % Version 3.0 from 2000. % I've tried my best for a proper ApJ reference % A great IUE observations. % They want a special acknowledgement for using their resource. % But if everyone wanted that the acknowledgements would go on forever like movie credits. % They've done a wonderful job and they get a reference and a brownie point. It has to do.
  298. \bibitem[Isaksson(2010)]{isaksson2010} Isaksson 2010, Library and Information Services in Astronomy VI, ASP Conference Proceedings, in press % ADS reference. % arXiv reference. % Title: E-accessible Astronomy Resources % Improving online access for folks with disabilities.
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  301. \bibitem[Jackson(1975)]{jackson1975} Jackson, J. D. 1975 Classical Electrodynamics (New York: John Wiley \& Sons) % The 2nd edition of this hoary classic.
  302. \bibitem[James(2007)]{jamesd2007} James, C. 2007 Cultural Amnesia (New York: W.W. Norton & Company) % In which Clive James plays Rhadamanthus to % almost all significant (and not so significant) % cultural beings of our times and bit earlier. % Literary book. History book. Biography book.
  303. \bibitem[Jeffery(2002)]{jefferycs2002} Jeffery, C. S. 2002, The Observatory, 122, 226 % Cousin Simon's review of % Peraiah (2002). % It's very favorable review. jefferyd
  304. \bibitem[Jeffery(1983)]{jeffery1983} Jeffery, D. J. 1983, M.Sc. thesis, McMaster University % The Ia explosion models with chan-wolf-sofia mixing-length formula.
  305. \bibitem[Jeffery(1987)]{jeffery1987} Jeffery, D. J. 1987, Nature, 329, 419 % My first 87A polarization paper. Mostly wrong except for the conclusion.
  306. \bibitem[Jeffery(1988)]{jeffery1988} Jeffery, D. J. 1988, Ph.D. thesis, McMaster University % Sobolev-polarization method I (SPMI).
  307. \citep{jeffery1989,1990b} \bibitem[Jeffery(1989)]{jeffery1989} Jeffery, D. J. 1989, \apjs, 71, 951 % SPMII: The Sobolev-P Method II paper. % The formation of the inverse-P Cygni polarization profile is explained % with Figures 9 and 10. Polarization maximum across the trough and % minimum with the emission feature. % Those figures actual show Stokes Q parameter not polarization. % So you have to mentally take the absolute value to get polarization. % In this case, electron scattering in the asymmetric limb gives a polarized % component to the continuum. % The line absorption removes unpolarized light and the emission adds unpolarized % light and hence the inverse-P Cygni line. % The jet-model also gives and inverse-P Cygni polarization line, but by a somewhat % different process.
  308. \bibitem[Jeffery(1990)]{jeffery1990} Jeffery, D. J. 1990, ApJ, 352, 267 % ADS reference. % Title: The Sobolev-P method. III - The Sobolev-P method generalized % for three-dimensional systems % (SPMIII). I made it 3-d because it could be done. % It set the record for most ApJ equations.
  309. \bibitem[Jeffery(1991a)]{jeffery1991a} Jeffery, D. J. 1991a, in {ESO/EIPC Workshop: SN~1987A and other Supernovae,} ed.~I.~J.~Danziger \&~K.~Kj\"ar (Garching: ESO), 257 % An analysis of 87A polarimetry
  310. \bibitem[Jeffery(1991b)]{jeffery1991b} Jeffery, D. J. 1991b, \apj, 375, 264 % SN 1987A polarimetry analysis. % Also my earliest (?) clear statement of the standard P Cygni % polarization profile on p. 275. % This paper came out in July; the catalog came out in November
  311. \bibitem[Jeffery(1991c)]{jeffery1991c} Jeffery, D. J. 1991b, \apjs, 77, 405 % SN 1987A polarimetry catalog corrected for ISP using % the private communication of M\'endez which has never been % published and I bloody well hope is right.
  312. \citep[e.g.,][]{jeffery1993} \bibitem[Jeffery(1993)]{jeffery1993} Jeffery, D. J. 1993, \apj, 415, 734 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Relativistic Sobolev Method Applied to Homologously Expanding Atmospheres. % See section 3 for my proof that photons always redshift in the % comoving frame no matter what the degree of special relativistic effects.
  313. \citep[e.g.,][]{jeffery1995} \bibitem[Jeffery(1995)]{jeffery1995} Jeffery, D. J. 1995, \apj, 440, 810 % % ADS reference. % Relativistic Sobolev optical depth formula with time dependence.
  314. % \citealt{jeffery1995b} \bibitem[Jeffery(1995b)]{jeffery1995b} Jeffery, D. J. 1995b, A\&A, 299, 770 % the Sobolev expansion opacity paper. % The paper appeared in July 1995.
  315. \bibitem[Jeffery(1998)]{jeffery1998} Jeffery, D. J. 1998, in Stellar Evolution, Stellar Explosions, and Galactic Chemical Evolution: Proc. Second Oak Ridge Symposium on Atomic \&~Nuclear Astrophysics, ed.~A.~Mezzacappa (Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing), 65, astro-ph/9802229 % the shorter LS grey $\gamma$-ray transfer procedure % for supernovae. % Tony is the one and only editor and he only uses % one initial.
  316. \bibitem[Jeffery(1998)]{jeffery1998} Jeffery, D. J. 1998, astro-ph/9811356 % the longer LS grey $\gamma$-ray transfer procedure % for supernovae. % Effectively rejected A\&SS, but just for being % prolix and (in the referee's opinion) worthless. % But the referee did not say anything was wrong. % So unpublished rather than preprint is best. % The later implies eventual publication which % may not be forthcoming. % There is a good review of radioactive decay energy % quantities in Section 5.
  317. \bibitem[Jeffery(1999)]{jeffery1999} Jeffery, D. J. 1999, astro-ph/9907015 %ADS reference. %astro-ph version. % Title: Radioactive Decay Energy Deposition in Supernovae and % the Exponential/Quasi-Exponential Behavior of Late-Time Supernova Light Curves. % The quasi-exponential lightcurve paper. % It gives the exponential density profile expressions for mass, energy, etc. % The paper on radioactive decay energy deposition in supernovae % and the exponential/quasi-exponential behavior of late-time % supernova light curves. % The exponential supernova model is developed in formulae in Appendix A.
  318. \bibitem[Jeffery(2004)]{jeffery2004} Jeffery, D. J. 2004, astro-ph/0406440 % A Simple Bipolar Jet Model % for the Polarization of Core-Collapse Supernovae % The bipolar jet model. It was never published other than at astro-ph. % In this model the supernova is spherically symmetric, but some light is % reflected off a fast jet and added to the direct unpolarized light from the % supernova. % The polarization would be constant if there were no extra redshift. % But the reflection gives an extra redshift and so the redshifted reflected spectrum % which is highly polarized is added offset to the direct spectrum and the polarization % varies with wavelength with a strong tendency to maxima at the line troughs. % So one again gets the inverse P~Cygni line polarization profile.
  319. \bibitem[Jeffery(2008)]{jeffery2008b} Jeffery, D. J. 2008, in preparation % % A Study of Energy Deposition Estimators for Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer\ % No matter what the time order or list order, this is much the less important paper of 2006. % So it is jeffery 2006b no matter what.
  320. \bibitem[Jeffery \&~Baron(2008c)]{jeffery2008d} Jeffery, D. J., \&~Baron, E. 2008d, in prepartion % Monte Carlo rate equation solution.
  321. \bibitem[Jeffery \&~Branch(1990)]{jeffery1990b} Jeffery, D. J., \&~Branch, D. 1990, in Jerusalem Winter School for Theoretical Physics, Vol.~6, Supernovae, ed.~J.~C.~Wheeler, T.~Piran, \&~S.~Weinberg (Singapore: World Scientific), 149 % Sobolev method, model supernova, % demonstration calculations, and 87A analysis. % The demonstration calculations are really the useful part of this article.
  322. \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(2006)]{jeffery2006} Jeffery, D. J., Branch, D., \&~Baron, E. 2006, arXiv:astro-ph/0609804v3 % ADS reference. % Title: On SN 2003fg: The Probable Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass SN Ia % The super-chandrasekhar-mass supernova Ia SN 2003fg. % It probably has a mass of 2 solar masses. % Exponential density profile results are given in section 15.
  323. \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(2008)]{jeffery2008d} Jeffery, D. J., Branch, D., \& Baron, E. 2008, in preparation % Title: Locally Normalizing and Comparing Supernova Spectra with the DIFF Package.
  324. \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(1991)]{jeffery1991} Jeffery, D. J., Branch, D., Filippenko, A. V., \& Nomoto, K. 1991, ApJ, 377, L89 % % ADS Reference % The near-maximum-light spectrum of the type IC supernova 1987M.
  325. % \citep[][]{jeffery2007a} \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(2007)]{jeffery2007a} Jeffery, D. J., Ketchum, W., Branch, D., Baron, E., Elmhamdi, A., \&~Danziger, I. J. 2007, ApJS, 171, 493, arXiv:astro-ph/0607084v3 % % Goodness-of-Fit Tests DIFF1 and DIFF2 for Locally-Normalized Supernova Spectra. % Local normalization and DIFF1/2.
  326. \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(1998)]{jeffery1998} Jeffery, D. J., Krstic, P. S., Liu, W., Schultz, D. R., \& Stancil, P. C. 1998, in Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Space Science Workshop, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 1998 April 1--3, Local Organizing Committee: W. H. Parkinson, Kate Kirby, \& Peter L. Smith, 101 % % ADS reference. % Title: Atomic and Molecular Physics and Data Activities for Astrophysics % at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. % This is the most measly of my publications. I'm only first author for % alphabetic reasons. David Schultz wrote the whole thing before I saw it % and my contribution was only David Schultz gleaned from my activities. % An pdf file of this enthralling paper is % here. % This paper may exist no where else now.
  327. % \citep[][p.~308]{jeffery1992} for exponential spherical grey temperature \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(1992)]{jeffery1992} % \citep[e.g.,][p.~307]{jeffery1992} for exponential density profile Jeffery, D. J., Leibundgut, B., Kirshner, R. P., Benetti, S., Branch, D., \&~Sonneborn, G. 1992, \apj, 397, 304 % ADS reference. % Title: Analysis of the photospheric epoch spectra of type 1a supernovae SN 1990N and SN 1991T. % The 90N/91T paper. % Some useful analytic results are given for the exponential supernova model such as the % electron photospheric time as a function electron photospheric % velocity and the exponential spherical gray atmosphere temperature run. % I do tentatively identify C II lines.
  328. % \citep[][]{jeffery2007b} \bibitem[Jeffery \&~Mazzali(2007)]{jeffery2007b} Jeffery, D. J., \&~Mazzali, P. A. 2007, in The Multicoloured Landscape of Compact Objects and their Explosive Origins, AIP Conf.~Pro.~924, Vol.~1 Cefal\`u, Sicily, 2006 June 11---24, ed.~L.~A.~Antonelli et al. (Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics), 401, arXiv:astro-ph/0611002v1 % ADS reference. % http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0611002 % Title: Giant Steps. % A Technique for Accelerating Monte Carlo % Radiative Transfer in Optically Thick Atmospheres
  329. % \citep[][]{jeffery2008} \bibitem[Jeffery(2008)]{jeffery2008} Jeffery, D. J. 2008, in preparation % \apjs, submitted % actually in prep, but soon submitted. % Title: Giant Steps: A Technique for Accelerating Monte Carlo % Radiative Transfer in Optically Thick Atmospheres % Never finished
  330. \bibitem[Jeffery \&~Sutherland(1985)]{jeffery1985} Jeffery, D. J., \&~Sutherland, P. G. 1985, Ap\&SS, 109, 277 % Ia explosions with the chan-wolf-sofia mixing length formula. Based on my M.Sc. thesis.
  331. \bibitem[Jeffery et al.(1994)]{jeffery1994} Jeffery, D. J., et al. 1994, \apj, 421, L27 % % ADS Reference % 13 coauthors. % A Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectrum of SN 1993J in M81. % 1993apr15 spectrum.
  332. \bibitem[Jeffreys(1961)]{jeffreys1961} Jeffreys, H. 1961, Theory of Probability (Oxford: Clarendon Press) % Old bible of Bayesian analysis
  333. \bibitem[Jha et al.(2006)]{jha2006a} Jha, S., Branch, D., Chornock, R., Foley, R. J., Li, W. D., Swift, B. J., Casebeer, D., \& Filippenko, A. V. 2006, AJ, 132, 189 % % ADS Reference % 8 coauthors. % Title: Late-Time Spectroscopy of SN 2002cx: The Prototype of a New Subclass of Type Ia Supernovae. % This it the subtype that may not be related to the others closely, but then % again maybe it is.
  334. \bibitem[Jha et al.(1999)]{jha1999} Jha, S., et al. 1999, ApJS, 125, 73 % % ADS Reference % infinite coauthors % Title: The Type IA Supernova 1998BU in M96 and the Hubble Constant. % The reference for the CfA supernova archive 98bu spectra.
  335. \bibitem[Jha et al.(2006)]{jha2006} Jha, S., et al. 2006, AJ, 131, 527 % % ADS Reference % infinite coauthors % Title: UBVRI Light Curves of 44 Type Ia Supernovae. % The reference for the CfA supernova archive photometry on % SN 2000cx (not SN 2002cx) % SN 1999aa % On p. 549, they give the Bmaximum dates in HJD. % HJD is heliocentric Julian Date which is something like (but maybe not % exactly) Julian Date on the Sun for signals. In other words the % light travel time difference is dealt with. From the Sun to the % Earth, the light time travel distance is 1.5*10**13/(3*10**10)=500 s = 8 minutes. % But angles and so make it more complicated that than this. % See % HJD reference. % In Supernova work, it's pretty finicky.

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  336. \bibitem[Kaempfer(1965)]{kaempfer1965} Kaempfer, F. A. 1965, {\it Concepts in Quantum Mechanics} (New York: Academic Press) % An oldy that has different way of presenting intro quantum, % but is really too advanced and to remote from modern % ways. But probably a perspective that must be understood % by a real quantum expert. % see http://statintquant.net/siq/html/stader/staderli1.html for referenct to
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  347. \bibitem[Kawabata et al.(2002)]{kawabata2002} Kawabata, K., et al. 2002, \apj, 580, L39 % % ADS Reference % The polarization data of SN 2002ap Ic hypernova that suggested that a jet formed. % 31 coauthors: Kawabata, Jeffery, ... Mazzali ... Nomoto. % astro-ph/0205414
  348. \bibitem[Kawabata et al.(2003)]{kawabata2003} Kawabata, K. S., et al. % Deng, J., Wang, L., % Mazzali, P., Nomoto, K., Maeda, K., Tominaga, N., Umeda, H., % Iye, M., Kosugi, G., Ohyama, Y., Sasaki, T., % H\"oflich, P., Wheeler, J. C., Jeffery, D. J., et al. 2003, 593, L19, astro-ph/0306155 % ``On the Spectrum and Spectropolarimetry of Type Ic Hypernova % SN 2003dh/GRB 030329'' % The important supernova establishing unequivocably the % supernova gamma-ray burst link. % At least 14 coauthors.
  349. \bibitem[Keenan et al.(1976)]{keenan1976} Keenan, C. W., Wood, J. H., & Kleinfelter, D. C. 1976, General College Chemistry (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers) (KWK) % It's on my shelf.
  350. \bibitem[Kawabata et al.(2003b)]{kawabata2003b} Kawabata, K. S., Jeffery, D. J.,~\etal 2003, {\it The Proceedings of the IAU 8th Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting, Volume II,} ed.~S.~Ikeuchi, J.~Hearnshaw, \&~T.~Hanawa (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), 333-334 % The SN 2002ap jet polarization paper rehash. % There are be 20 plus coauthors.
  351. \bibitem[Khokhlov(1994)]{khokhlov1994} Khokhlov, A. 1994, ApJ, 424, L115. % 3-d flame in Ia's. 3-d absolutely necessary. 2-d % behavior is intrinsically different. % smaller scale behavior in 3-d.
  352. \bibitem[Khokhlov et al.(1999)]{khokhlov1999} Khokhlov, A. M., H\"oflich, P., Oran, E. S., Wheeler, J. C., \&~Wang, L. 1999, astro-ph/9904419 % Jet-induced explosions of core collapse supernovae. % Assumed core jets explode the star asymmetrically. % The asymmetry in the bulk material gives the polarization. % The break-out jets give gamma-ray bursts of one kind. % I'd bet my dog their right.
  353. \bibitem[Khokhlov et al.(1993)]{khokhlov1993} Khokhlov, A., M\"uller, E., \& H\"oflich, P. 1993, A\&A, 270, 223 % A range of Ia explosion models with light curves are presented. % The DET1 model is a pure detonation with g=M_Ni/M_IP=.66.
  354. \bibitem[Kirshner et al.(1988)]{kirshner1988} Kirshner, R.~P., Blades, J.~C., Branch, D., Chevalier, R. A., Fransson, C., Panagia, N., Wagoner, R.~V., \&~Wheeler, J.~C. 1988, {{\it HST} Proposal SINS: The Supernova INtensive Study}, unpublished % the actual HST proposal itself.
  355. \bibitem[Kirshner \& Oke(1975)]{kirshner1975} Kirshner, R.~P., \&~Oke, J.~B. 1975, ApJ, 200, 574 % % ADS reference. % Title: Supernova 1972e in NGC 5253. % nebular epoch spectra of Type~Ia SN~1972E % and analysis up to $\sim 714$ days after explosion (using % 18 day rule). % The AB (close to B-.2) light curve 60--714 days has % a fitted half-life of 57.89 days or .013 mag/day decline. % The 72E spectrum set with a claim to % photometric accuracy equal to photometry. % Spectra from day +235 to +714 relative to Bmax.
  356. \bibitem[Kirshner et al.(1973)]{kirshner1973b} Kirshner, R.~P., Oke, J.~B., Penston, M.~V., \&~Searle, L. 1973, ApJ, 185, 303 % % ADS reference. % Title: The spectra of supernovae. % a study of supernova spectra, both I and II, with % emphasis on Type~Ia SN~1972E. The SN~1972E % spectrum set with a claim (p. 307) for absolute % flux calibration. % Spectra from day +4 to +235 relative to Bmax.
  357. \bibitem[Kirshner et al.(1973)]{kirshner1973a} Kirshner, R.~P., Willner, S.~P., Becklin, E.~E., Neugebauer, G., \&~Oke, J.~B. 1973a, ApJ, 180, L97 % % Title: Spectrophotometry of the Supernova in NGC 5253 from 0.33 to 2.2 Microns. % spectrophotometry and color temperature of Ia SN~1972E. % The spectra are just narrow band filters. % There are also some early light curves in AB magnitudes. % AB(4400) corresponds to B and shows max at about may16.
  358. \bibitem[Kirshner et al.(1993)]{kirshner1993} Kirshner, R. P., et al. 1993, ApJ, 415, 589 % % ADS reference. % Title: SN 1992A: Ultraviolet and Optical Studies Based on HST, IUE, and CTIO Observations. % The SN~1992A Ia paper with HST spectra. There are 21 authors, Kirshner, Jeffery, % Leibundgut, Challis, Sonneborn, etc. %
  359. \bibitem[Klee(1997)]{klee1997} Klee, R. 1997, Introduction to the Philosophy of Science: Cutting Nature at its Seams (New York: Oxford University Press) % Recent, seems good, and the author seems a great stylist. % He has his strong positions: negative on social constructivism, % but who hasn't. % But an easier good book is % Chalmers (1999). % Science book.
  360. \bibitem[Klein \& Castor(1978)]{klein1978} Klein, R. I., \& Castor, J. I. 1978, ApJ, 220, 902 % % ADS reference. % Title: H and He II spectra of Of stars. % The important part of this paper is that they introduce Sobolev escape % probabilities into the rate equations. This may be the first time for % this, but who knows.
  361. \bibitem[Knop et al.(2003)]{knop2003} Knop, R. A., et al. 2003, ApJ, 598, 102 % New Constraints on OmegaM, OmegaLambda, and w from an % Independent Set of 11 High-Redshift Supernovae Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope
  362. \bibitem[Koestler(1959)]{koestler1959} Koestler, A. 1977 (1959), The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe (Harmondswoth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, Ltd.) (Ko) % % Arthur Koestler (1905--1983) is a very mixed bag as person: % see Wikipedia: Koestler, % and references therein. % He believed in parapsychology; he supported a host of cranky causes; % he was personally odious at times. % Even I can see that % The Sleepwalkers is very derivative where it is good % and something of a hatchet-job where it is bad. % I was never able to finish A Darkness at Noon though % many have considered it a great novel. % It must be said that he opposed totalitarianism in times when % it was important to do so. % % One wonders if anything can be salvaged from Koestler. % If every quote and conjecture from Koestler has to be defended % from my own distaste for him and my doubts about his accuracy, % honesty, and judgment, then I guess I'd better dismiss him to history % despite his talents and his artistry as a writer. % % But the Kepler section of the The Sleepwalkers is an interesting % read as long as one doesn't treat it as authoritative in any way. % % The book has been justly derided over the years. He was % grinding some pretty idiosyncratic axes. % Many of his main points are really objectionable after one has % seen the solid work of others. % Personally, I find some of Koestler's attitudes objectionable too. % Most strikingly to me, Koestler is scornful of Copernicus for loving some one. % But it seems to me that later writers have had to at least concede % that Koestler scored a few sound points. % His insistence that Kepler had mystical side was right. % Of course, it was not a new insight since Kepler's % foremost biographer Max Caspar % had already presented it (e.g., Ca-377). % And although Koestler's treatments of Copernicus and Galileo are % unjust and belittling, it's hard to deny that Copernicus was very, very % cautious and that Galileo could be arrogant. % Actually, I wonder if Koestler's portrayal of Galileo is a self-portrait. % History book. Science book. Biography book.
  363. \bibitem[Kollros(1956)]{kollros1956} Kollros, L. 1956, in Jubilee of Relativity Theory, Bern, 1955, 11--16, ed.~A.~Mercier \& M.~A.~Kervaire (Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser), ? % The title of the article by Louis Kollros (1878--1959) is % {\it Albert Einstein en Suisse, Souvenirs}. % See % Adler et al. (1975) % for the Einstein quote on the summation rule. % For a online record of this book see % % North Carolina State University Library.
  364. \bibitem[Kotak et al.(2005)]{kotak2005} Kotak, R., et al. 2005, A\&A, 436, 1021 % % ADS Reference % Title: Spectroscopy of the type Ia supernova SN 2002er: Days -11 to +215.
  365. \bibitem[Kozma et al.(2005)]{kozma2005} Kozma, C., Fransson, C., Hillebrandt, W., Travaglio, C., Sollerman, J., Reinecke, M., R\"opke, F. K., \& Spyromilio, J. 2005, , 437, 981 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Three-dimensional modeling of type Ia supernovae - The power of late time spectra. % Fritz Roepke's c3_3d_256_10s pure deflagration model model fails to reproduce nebular spectra. % See Roepke (2005).
  366. \bibitem[Krisciunas et al.(2000)]{krisciunas2000} Krisciunas, K., Hastings, N. C., Loomis, K., McMillan, R., Rest, A., Riess, A. G., \& Stubbs, C. % 7 coauthors 2000, ApJ, 539, 658 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Uniformity of (V-Near-Infrared) Color Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae % and Implications for Host Galaxy Extinction Determination % B maxima from MLCS for SN 1972e, SN 1980N, SN 1981B, SN 1981D, SN 1983R, % SN 1998bu, SN 1999aa, SN 1999cl, SN 1999cp (p. 667).
  367. \bibitem[Krisciunas et al.(2003)]{krisciunas2003} Krisciunas, K., et al. 2003, AJ, 125, 166 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Optical and Infrared Photometry of the Nearby Type Ia Supernova 2001el. % B max 2001sep30.0 (JD 2452182.5) from p. 170 in the Figure 3 caption.
  368. \bibitem[Krisciunas et al.(2004)]{krisciunas2004} Krisciunas, K., et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 1664 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Optical and Infrared Photometry of the Nearby Type Ia Supernovae 1999ee, 2000bh, 2000ca, and 2001ba. % 20 or so coauthors including Stritzinger. % On p. 1666 they seem to adopt the Bmax of % Stritzinger et al. (2002).
  369. \bibitem[Krisciunas et al.(2007)]{krisciunas2007} Krisciunas, K., et al. 2007, AJ, 133, 58 % % ADS Reference. % Title: The Type Ia Supernova 2004S, a Clone of SN 2001el, and the Optimal Photometric Bands % for Extinction Estimation. % 12 coauthors.
  370. \bibitem[Kromer \&Sim(2009)]{kromer2009} Kromer, M., \&~Sim, S. A. 2009, MNRAS, submitted %ADS Reference. % Title: Time-Dependent 3D Spectrum Synthesis for Type Ia Supernovae. % good 3-d technique, Lucy macro-atom, approximate NLTE, % time-dependence for radiation field, none for thermal processes. % I refereed it circa 2009may29. % I made lots of suggestions. % We can hope for the best.
  371. \bibitem[Kuchner et al.(1994)]{kuchner1994} Kuchner, M. J., Kirshner, R. P., Pinto, P. A., \&~Leibundgut, B. 1994, ApJ, 426, L89 % % ADS reference. % Title: Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae. % Marc's Ni-Co-Fe decay proof in Ia's from simple % nebular line ratios. % Just about the only place you will find an identified cobalt line in the % literature: the [Co III].
  372. \bibitem[Kurucz et al.(1991)]{kurucz1991} Kurucz, R. L. 1991, in Stellar Atmospheres: Beyond Classical Models, ed.~L.~Crivellari, I.~Hubeny, \&~D.~G.~Hummer (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 441 % % ADS reference. But not available online. % Title: New Opacity Calculations. % Opacity calculations discussed and % the 5.5 million lines are discussed here.
  373. \bibitem[Kurucz et al.(1991)]{kurucz1991} Kurucz, R. L. 1991, in Precision Photometry: Astrophysics of the Galaxy, ed.~A.~G.~D.~Philip, A.~R.~Upgren and K.~A.~Janes (Schenectady, New York: Davis Press), 27 % % ADS reference. But not available online. % Title: New Lines, New Models, New Colors. % Opacity calculations discussed and % the 5.5 million lines are discussed here.

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  374. \bibitem[Lair et al.(2006)]{lair2006} Lair, J. C., Leising, M. D., Milne, P. A., \& Williams, G. G. 2006, AJ, 132, 2024 % % ADS reference. % Title: Late Light Curves of Normal Type Ia Supernovae. % More on very late SN Ia light curves. % Whether positrons escape or not is not yet solved.
  375. \bibitem[Lamarsh(1966)]{lamarsh1966} Lamarsh, J. R. 1966, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory (Reading Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley) % An intelligible derivation of Fick's law on p. 125ff. % Reproduced online at % http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/gpr/PPNPport/node31.html
  376. \bibitem[Landstreet(2003)]{landstreet2003} Landstreet, John D. 2003, Physical Processes in the Solar System: An Introduction to the physics of Asteroids, Comets, Moons, and Planets (London, Canada: Keenan & Darlington, Publishers) (La) % (La-???)
  377. \bibitem[Langer et al.(2000)]{langer2000} Langer, N., Deutschmann, A., Wellstein, S., \& H\"oflich, P. 2000, A\&A, 362, 1046 % Accretion to WD's doesn't allow WD greater than 2 or so M_sun. % Up to 4 is dynamically possible according to \cite{yoon2005}. % Describing this work as one of accretion histories is OK judging from the % abstract.
  378. \bibitem[Lawden(1975)]{lawden1975} Lawden, D. F. 1975, An Introduction to Tensor Calculus and Relativity (London: Chapman and Hall) % A short book on relativity. I have it on my shelf: % that's its especially good feature. % Actually, it's quite good.
  379. \bibitem[Lawden(2002)]{lawden2002} Lawden, D. F. 2002, An Introduction to Tensor Calculus, Relativity, and Cosmology (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.), (Law) % A short book on relativity. I have it on my shelf: % that's its especially good feature. % Actually, it's quite good, but I've heard some of % the notation is now out-of-date.
  380. \bibitem[Laughlin(2005)]{laughlin2005} Laughlin, R. B. 2005, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Up (New York: Basic Books) % Interesting book on emergence in physics and other sciences. % http://www.amazon.com/Different-Universe-Reinventing-Physics-Bottom/dp/B000MV8HOI/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1283579653&sr=1-1 % http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_B._Laughlin
  381. \bibitem[Leibundgut et al.(1991)]{leibundgut1991} Leibundgut, B., Kirshner, R. P., Filippenko, A. V., Shields, J. C., Foltz, C. B., Phillips, M. M., \& Sonneborn, G. 1991, \apj, 371, L23 % % ADS reference. % Title: Premaximum observations of the type IA SN 1990N % Photometry and spectra and IUE spectra.
  382. \bibitem[Leibundgut et al.(1993)]{leibundgut1993} Leibundgut, B., et al. 1993, AJ, 105, 301 % % ADS reference. % Title: SN 1991bg: A type IA supernova with a difference. % Photometry and spectra. % They give a Vmax date of 1991dec14.7 +/- 0.5, but % in Julian date they give JD 2448605.3 for Vmax, but if 14.7 is right, % then they meant JD 2448605.2. Even Bruno nods.
  383. \bibitem[Leitherer(2006)]{leitherer2006} Leitherer, C. 2006, in Mass Loss from Stars and the Evolution of Stellar Clusters: Proc. of a Workshop Held in Honor of Henny Lamers, ed. A. de Koter, L. Smith \& R. Waters (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), in press, astro-ph/0608698 % astro-ph/0608698. % Title: Spectral Synthesis of Massive Stars in Clusters. % Stellar clusters are thought to be the simplest stellar systems and the closest observational % counterparts to theoretical models for single stellar populations. Progress in our understanding % of the atmospheres and evolution of massive stars has led to generally reliable synthesis models. The future release % of new evolution models with rotation, however, will require non-trivial updates to previously published % synthesis models, in particular for all Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant related quantities. Cluster % synthesis work is currently progressing from a purely stellar approach to a more comprehensive % stellar+cluster perspective. The photometric evolution of stars and the dynamical evolution of clusters % are delicately interwoven. Recent work attempts to combine these seemingly related fields.
  384. \bibitem[Leonard et al.(2001a)]{leonard2001a} Leonard, D. C., \&~Filippenko, A. V. 2001a, \pasp, in press, astro-ph/0105295 % spectropolarimetry of 97ds, 98A, 99gi: all II's.
  385. \bibitem[Leonard \&~Filippenko(2005)]{leonard2005} Leonard, D. C., \&~Filippenko, A. V. 2005, in 1604-2004: Supernovae as Cosmological Lighthouses, ASP Conference Series, Vol.~342, Proceedings of the conference held 15--19 June, 2004 in Padua, Italy, ed.~ M. Turatto, S. Benetti, L. Zampieri, \&~W. Shea (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), 330, astro-ph/0409659 % Title: Spectropolarimetry of Core-Collapse Supernovae % Less hydrogen envelope, more polarization.
  386. \bibitem[Leonard et al.(2001b)]{leonard2001b} Leonard, D. C., Filippenko, A. V., Ardila, D. R., \&~Brotherton, M. S. 2001b, \apj, 553, 861, % astro-ph/0009285 % polarization of 99em II-P positive, spectropolarimetry.
  387. \bibitem[Leonard et al.(2000a)]{leonard2000a} Leonard, D. C., Filippenko, A. V., Barth, A. J., \&~Matheson, T. 2000a, \apj, 536, 239 %, astro-ph/9908040 % Evidence for the asphericity of Type IIn SN 1998S. % They give a long discussion on ISP correction.
  388. \bibitem[Leonard et al.(2002)]{leonard2002} Leonard, D. C., Filippenko, A. V., Chornock, R., \& Foley, R. J. 2002, \pasp, 114, 1333 % astro-ph/0206368 % Doug on type Ic/weak-hypernova? SN 2002ap: he confirms the possible jet component % of polarization found by Kawabata et al.
  389. \bibitem[Leonard et al.(2000b)]{leonard2000b} Leonard, D. C., Filippenko, A. V. \&~Matheson, T. 2000b, in Cosmic Explosions, ed.~S.~Holt \&~W.~W.~Zhang (New York: AIP), 165 % Very short but nice review of supernova spectropolarimetry.
  390. \bibitem[Leonard et al.(2005b)]{leonard2005b} Leonard, D. C., Li, W., Filippenko, A. V., Foley, R. J., \& Chornock, R. 2005b, \apj, 632, 450 % % ADS reference. % Title: Evidence for Spectropolarimetric Diversity in Type Ia Supernovae. % ``Increasing strength of line-polarization features: ordinary/overluminous \bibitem[Li et al.(1999)]{li1999} Li, W. D., et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 2709 % % ADS Reference. % Title: The Type IA Supernova 1997BR in ESO 576-G40. % 10 coauthors % Weidong calls himself W. D. Li.
  391. \bibitem[Li et al.(2001)]{li2001} Li, W. D., et al. 2001, PASP, 113, 788 % % ADS Reference. % Title: The Unique Type Ia Supernova 2000cx in NGC 524. % 11 coauthors % Weidong calls himself W. D. Li. % David Branch calls it a shallow silicon Ia.
  392. \bibitem[Li et al.(2003)]{li2003} Li, W. D., et al. 2003, PASP, 115, 453 % % ADS Reference. % Title: SN 2002cx: The Most Peculiar Known Type Ia Supernova % 15 coauthors % Weidong calls himself W. D. Li. % David Branch calls it a shallow silicon Ia, but it is the super-peculiar % Ia with the narrow nebular lines.
  393. \bibitem[Liddle(2015)]{liddle2015} Liddle, A. 2015, An Introduction to Modern Cosmology (Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd.) % Just 200 pages of good stuff % Li-???
  394. \bibitem[Lira et al.(1998)]{lira1998} Lira, P., et al. 1998, AJ, 115, 234 % % ADS Reference. % There is an errata at % % ADS Reference, but it only has stuff of interest to observers. % Title: Optical light curves of the Type IA supernovae SN 1990N and 1991T % 31 coauthors % Bmax=12.76 on JD 2448082.7 +/- .5 which is .3 days earlier than Bruno had it. % In date this 1990jul10.2. % One has to believe that since they are experts and are later that they got % a better Bmax.
  395. \bibitem[Liu et al.(1997a)]{liu1997a} Liu, W., Jeffery, D. J., \&~Schultz, D. R. 1997a, ApJ, 483, L107 % the nebular spectra of SNe~Ia paper.
  396. \bibitem[Liu et al.(1997b)]{liu1997b} Liu, W., Jeffery, D. J., \&~Schultz, D. R. 1997b, ApJ, 486, L35 % the nebular spectra of Type~Ia SN~1991T paper.
  397. \bibitem[Liu et al.(1998)]{liu1998} Liu, W., Jeffery, D. J., \&~Schultz, D. R. 1998, ApJ, 494, 812 % The photoionization and charge transfer paper.
  398. \bibitem[Liu et al.(1997c)]{liu1997c} Liu, W., Jeffery, D. J., Schultz, D. R., Quinet, P., Shaw, J., \&~Pindzola, M. S. 1997c, ApJ, 489, L141 % The cobalt line emission paper.
  399. \bibitem[Livne \&~Arnett(1995)]{livne1995} Livne, E., \&~Arnett, W. D. 1990, \apj, 452, 62 % % ADS reference. % Title: Explosions of Sub--Chandrasekhar Mass White Dwarfs in Two Dimensions. % More of the helium-igniter sub-Chandrasekhar mass Ia papers. % Variations on this theme had been investigated earlier by % Nomoto (1982) % and Woosley et al. (1986). % Nugent (1997) ruled them out with PHOENIX calculations.
  400. \bibitem[Livne \&~Glasner(1990)]{livne1990} Livne, E., \&~Glasner, A. 1990, \apj, 361, 244 % % ADS reference. % Title: Geometrical effects in off-center detonation of helium shells. % First of the helium-igniter sub-Chandrasekhar mass Ia papers. % Variations on this theme had been investigated earlier by % Nomoto (1982) % and Woosley et al. (1986). % Nugent (1997) ruled them out with PHOENIX calculations.
  401. \bibitem[Livne \&~Glasner(1991)]{livne1991} Livne, E., \&~Glasner, A. 1991, \apj, 370, 272 % % ADS reference. % Title: Numerical simulations of off-center detonations in helium shells. % 2nd of the helium-igniter sub-Chandrasekhar mass Ia papers. % Variations on this theme had been investigated earlier by % Nomoto (1982) % and Woosley et al. (1986). % Nugent (1997) ruled them out with PHOENIX calculations.
  402. \bibitem[L\'opez-Puertas \&~Taylor(2001)]{lopez-puertas2001} L\'opez-Puertas, M., \& Taylor, F. W. 2001, Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Vol.~3, Non-LTE Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere, (Singapore: World Scientific) % Sort of a Mihalas for the Earth's atmosphere.
  403. \bibitem[Lucy(1991)]{lucy1991} Lucy, L. B. 1991, \apj, 383, 308 % % ADS reference. % Title: Nonthermal excitation of helium in type Ib supernovae. % nonthermal excitation of He I lines in Type~Ib's % Lucy says ultimately from the gamma-rays from Ni-56 mixed out into the He envelope. % See p. 308 and 312.
  404. \bibitem[Lucy(1999a)]{lucy1999a} Lucy, L. B. 1999a, \aap, 344, 282 % % ADS reference. % Title: Computing radiative equilibria with Monte Carlo techniques. % his self-consistent LTE with Monte Carlo % and his tau-prescription for MCAA % Shows the Lambda-iteration works with MC for LTE atmospheres.
  405. \citep[e.g.,][]{lucy1999b} \bibitem[Lucy(1999b)]{lucy1999b} Lucy, L. B. 1999b, \aap, 345, 211 % ADS reference. % Title: Improved Monte Carlo techniques for the spectral synthesis of supernovae. % Lucy's vastly improved Monte Carlo techniques % including what I call Monte Carlo with analytic averaging (MCAA): % his 1-exp(-tau) for lines. % He gives his formal integral procedure. % The Sobolev method is used in part.
  406. \bibitem[Lucy(2002)]{lucy2002} Lucy, L. B. 2002, \aap, 384, 725 %, astro-ph/0107377 % Title: Monte Carlo transition probabilities. % Transition probabilities governing the interaction of % energy packets and matter % are derived that allow Monte Carlo NLTE transfer codes to be constructed % without simplifying the treatment of line formation. These probabilities are % such that the Monte Carlo calculation asymptotically recovers the local % emissivity of a gas in statistical equilibrium. % Macro-atom paper I.
  407. \bibitem[Lucy(2003)]{lucy2003} Lucy, L. B. 2003, \aap, 403, 261 %, astro-ph/0303202 %ADS reference. % Title: Monte Carlo transition probabilities. II. % Paper II on transition probabilities governing the interaction of % energy packets and matter % are derived that allow Monte Carlo NLTE transfer codes to be constructed % without simplifying the treatment of line formation. These probabilities are % such that the Monte Carlo calculation asymptotically recovers the local % emissivity of a gas in statistical equilibrium. % Macro-atom paper II. % Lambda iteration works for limited NLTE (as Lucy2005a) states. % Application is made to Type II supernovae, but not in paper I it seems.
  408. \bibitem[Lucy(2005a)]{lucy2005a} Lucy, L. B. 2005a, \aap, 429, 19 %, astro-ph/0409249 % ADS reference. % Title: Monte Carlo techniques for time-dependent radiative transfer in 3-D supernovae. % All kinds of good stuff that may be important for my future work. % p. 21 points out that difference equation radtran conserves energy only % asymptotically as convergence is approached. A key point.
  409. \bibitem[Lucy(2005b)]{lucy2005b} Lucy, L. B. 2005b, \aap, 429, 31 %, astro-ph/0409078 % ADS reference. % Title: Similarity solutions for radiation in time-dependent relativistic flows. % All kinds of good stuff that may be important for my future work.
  410. \bibitem[Lux \& Koblinger(1991)]{lux1991} Lux, I., \& Koblinger, L. 1991, Monte Carlo Particle Transport Methods: Neutron and Photon Calculations (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Inc.) % % Amazon reference. % Currently, unavailble. % A bible of Monte Carlo radiative transfer.

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  411. \bibitem[MacFadyen et al.(1999)]{macfadyen1999} MacFadyen, A. I., \& Woosley, S. E. 1999, ApJ, 524, 262. % Their paper on jets.
  412. \bibitem[MacFadyen et al.(2001)]{macfadyen2001} MacFadyen, A. I., Woosley, S. E., \&~Heger, A. 2001, \apj, 550, 410 % Supernovae, Jets, and Collapsars % Jets helping the supernova and escaping to form GRBs maybe
  413. \bibitem[Maclean(1961)]{maclean1964} Maclean, F. 1964, Eastern Approaches (New York: Time Incorporated) % Fitzroy Maclean (1911-1996) % (Wikipedia) was sort of a Scottish Highland chief among other things % like writer, traveler, soldier. This is an acount of his % travels in the pre-WWII Soviet Union and then of WWII spent % in the Balkans where he met up with Tito. % History book. Travel book. Biography book
  414. \bibitem[Maeda \&~Iwamoto(2009)]{maeda2009b} Maeda, K., \&~Iwamoto K. 2009, MNRAS, 394, 239 % ADS reference. % Title: Observational Characteristics and Possible Asphericity of Over-Luminous Type Ia Supernovae % SN 2003fg: they do radiative transfer modeling and find that SN 2003fg may well be % asymmetric. They make no use of Jeffery et al. (2006)'s conclusions, but they % do make use of our modeling prescription. % p. 241 says they used model construction like Jeffery et al. 2006.
  415. \bibitem[Maeda et al.(2009)]{maeda2009a} Maeda, K., Kawabata, K., Li, W., Tanaka, M., Mazzali, P. A., Hattori, T., Nomoto, K., \&~Filippenko, A. V. 2009, ApJ, 690, 1745 % ADS reference. % Title: Subaru and Keck Observations of the Peculiar Type Ia Supernova 2006gz at Late Phases. % SN 2003fg-like and potentially super-chan 2006gz is peculiar at 1 year, but % not in a way that easily accords with it's super-chan early phase.
  416. \bibitem[Marion et al.(2003)]{marion2003} Marion, G. H., H\"oflich, P., Vacca, W. D., \& Wheeler, J. C. 2003, \apj, 591, 316 % % ADS reference. % Title: Near-Infrared Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae. % Pretty strong that the stratified 1-d delayed-detonation model 5p028z22.25 does % a pretty good job of explaining the IR spectra of core normal SNe Ia.
  417. \bibitem[Marion et al.(2006)]{marion2006} Marion, G. H., H\"oflich, P., Wheeler, J. C., Robinson, E. L., Gerardy, C. L., \& Vacca, W. D. 2006, \apj, 645, 1392 % Low Carbon Abundance in Type Ia Supernovae. % A factor 100 to 1000 below O abundance for normal Ia's. % Strong evidence for the delayed-detonation models.
  418. \bibitem[Massey(2003)]{massey2003} Massey, P. 2003, ARA\&A, 41, 15 % % ADS reference. % 41 pages. It's massive. % Title: MASSIVE STARS IN THE LOCAL GROUP: Implications for Stellar Evolution and Star Formation. % The galaxies of the Local Group serve as important laboratories for understanding the physics of massive stars. % Here I discuss what is involved in identifying various kinds of massive stars in nearby galaxies: the hydrogen-burning % O-type stars and their evolved He-burning evolutionary descendants, the luminous blue variables, red supergiants, % and Wolf-Rayet stars. Primarily I review what our knowledge of the massive star population in nearby galaxies has taught us % about stellar evolution and star formation. I show that the current generation of stellar evolutionary models do well at matching % some of the observed features and provide a look at the sort of new observational data that will provide a benchmark against % which new models can be evaluated.
  419. \bibitem[Massey(2006)]{massey2006} Massey, P. 2006, in "Massive Stars in the Local Group: Star Formation and Stellar Evolution", The Local Group as an Astrophysical Labatory, Proceedings of the May 2003 STScI Symposium, ed. M. Livio and T. M. Brown, (Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press), 164, astro-ph/0307531 % Title: Massive Stars in the Local Group: Star Formation and Stellar Evolution. % The galaxies of the Local Group that are currently forming stars can serve as our laboratories for understanding % star formation and the evolution of massive stars. In this talk I will summarize what I think % we've learned about these topics over the past few decades of research, and briefly mention % what I think needs to happen next.
  420. \bibitem[Masters(1961)]{masters1961} Masters, J. 1961, The Road Past Mandalay (London: Michael Joseph, Ltd.) % Novelist John Masters memoirs of the WWII % and the action he saw in Iraq and Burma. % Great title, good read. % If I recall correctly, Masters is like acid on % the subject of American general Joseph Stillwell. % Since Vinegar Joe used acid himself, he can't complain. % This is the sequel to ``Bugles and a Tiger'' which % accounts the early stages of Masters path to becoming % what he inevitable would become: a retired lieutenant colonel % of the Indian Army. It was never discarded and so I never acquired it. % See John Masters (Wikipedia) % where an unnamed Indian author is quoted as % saying ``that while Kipling understood India, John Masters understood Indians.'' % But this just echos a remark by Masters that goes like Kipling understood % everything about India, but nothing about Indians. % He wrote mostly about the British Raj: one plays the hand % one is dealt. % History book. Travel book. Biography book
  421. \bibitem[Matheson et al.(2001)]{matheson2001} Matheson, T., Filippenko, A. V., Li, W., Leonard, D. C., \& Shields, J. C. 2001, \aj, 121, 1648 % % ADS Reference % optical spectroscopy of type Ib/c supernovae. They include IIb's SN 1998fa and 1996cb. % The observational paper with all kinds of spectra reported. % They derive R maximum and maxima for some supernovae.
  422. \bibitem[Matheson et al.(2002)]{matheson2002} Matheson, T., Jha, S., Challis, P., Kirshner, R., \& Berlind, P. 2002, IAU Circ.~7903 % % ADS Reference % Reports the earliest SN 2002cx spectrum from 2002may17.22 UT.
  423. \bibitem[Matheson et al.(2003)]{matheson2003} Matheson, T., et al. 2003, \apj, 599, 394 % % ADS Reference % About 50 coauthors % Photometry and Spectroscopy of GRB 030329 and Its Associated Supernova 2003dh: The First Two Months. % They try to correct spectra to eliminate the afterglow which they model as a power law function (see p. 403).
  424. \bibitem[Mattila et al.(2005)]{mattila2005} Mattila, S., Lundqvist, P., Sollerman, J., Kozma, C., Baron, E., Fransson, C., Leibundgut, B., \& Nomoto, K. 2005, A\&A, 443, 649 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Early and late time VLT spectroscopy of SN 2001el - progenitor constraints for a type Ia supernova. % Spectra from day -8.7, -1.7, and +398 relative to B max 2001sep30.0 (JD 2452182.5).
  425. \bibitem[Mauldin(1971)]{mauldin1971} Mauldin, W. 1971, The Brass Ring (New York: W.W. Norton & Compnay, Inc.) % Bill Mauldin (1921--2003) % (Wikipedia). % Bill Mauldin was the Willie and Joe cartoonist of the WWII. % On p. 273, he just quietly lets on that the real Willie died somewhere in % the vicinity of Anzio. % History book. Biography book.
  426. \bibitem[Mauer et al.(2010)]{mauer2010} Maurer, I., Mazzali, P., Taubenberger, S., \& Hachinger, S. 2010, MNRAS, submitted %ADS reference. % Title: Hydrogen and helium in the late phase of SNe IIb. % Lots of great nebular modeling stuff. % But still a lot of model adjusting.
  427. \bibitem[Mazo(2002)]{mazo2002} Mazo, R. M. 2002, Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications (Oxford: Clarendon Press) % Has diffusion equation (p. 55) and point burst solution (p~183). % Fick's law is on p. 228 and 268, but not discussed usefully.
  428. \bibitem[Mazzli(2001a)]{mazzali2001a} Mazzali, P. A. 2001, MNRAS 321, 341 % % ADS reference. % Title: On the presence of silicon and carbon in the pre-maximum spectrum of the Type Ia SN. % Presents evidence for C II 6580. % Also evidence for high-velocity Si II.
  429. \bibitem[Mazzli(2006)]{mazzali2006} Mazzali, P. A. 2006, private communication % Confirmed that he has used giant steps for some time % for practical calculations for SN with time dependence. % He's run some tests, but never published the work.
  430. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(2005)]{mazzali2005} Mazzali, P. A., Benetti, S., Branch, D., Deng, J., Maeda, K., Nomoto, K., \& Hamuy, M. 2005, MNRAS, 357, 200 % % ADS reference. % Title: High-velocity features in the spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN 1999ee: % a property of the explosion or evidence of circumstellar interaction? % They tentatively identify HV Si II.
  431. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(1998)]{mazzali1998} Mazzali, P. A., Cappellaro, E., Danziger, I. J., Turatto, M., \&~Benetti, S. 1998, \apj, 499, L49 % Iron-core radii and FWHM for Ia's from the nebular epoch from 100 plus days after explosion. % The model velocities are in the range 8000--10500 km/s except 91bg is at about 2000 km/s. % P. 162 of mazzali1997 says they use a uniform density core for the nebular modeling. % I assume they still used that for mazzali1998 though not explicitly mentioned.
  432. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(1997)]{mazzali1997} Mazzali, P. A., Chugai, N., Turatto, M., Lucy, L. B., Danziger, I. J., Cappellaro, E., Della Valle, M., \&~Benetti, S. 1997, \mnras, 284, 151 % 91bg. M_Ni56=0.07 M_sun % He finds a small iron-core with transition from 1600 to 5000 km/s on p. 168. % But it is a Chandrasekhar mass model with a W7-like density profile: i.e., an exponential one. % P. 162 says they use a uniform density core for the nebular modeling. % I assume they still used that for mazzali1998 though not explicitly mentioned.
  433. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(1995)]{mazzali1995} Mazzali, P. A., Danziger, I.J., \& Turatto, M. 1995, A\&A, 297, 509 % ADS reference. % Title: A study of the properties of the peculiar SN IA 1991T through models of its evolving early-time spectrum. % Paolo argues for the sandwich IPE,IME,IPE. % Figure 8 shows the mystery 9500 A absorption which is probably an artifact.
  434. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(2000)]{mazzali2000} Mazzali, P. A., Iwamoto, K., Nomoto, K. 2000, \apj, 545, 407 % % ADS Reference % A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Energetic Type Ic Hypernova SN 1997EF. % Paolo calls it a hypernovae and gives V max as 1997dec10 which is nearly UVOIR bolometric max. % He finds a rise time of about 18 days.
  435. \bibitem[Mazzali \& Lucy(1993)]{mazzali1993} Mazzali, P. A., \& Lucy, L. B. 1993, \aap, 279, 447 % ADS reference % Title: The application of Monte Carlo methods to the synthesis of early-time supernovae spectra.
  436. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(1993)]{mazzali1993} Mazzali, P. A., Lucy, L. B., Danziger, I. J., Gouiffes, C., Cappellaro, E., \& Turatto, M. 1993, A\&A, 269, 423 %ADS reference. % Title: Models for the early-time spectral evolution of the 'standard' type IA supernova 1990N.
  437. \bibitem[Mazzali et al.(2001)]{mazzali2001} Mazzali, P. A., Nomoto, K., Cappellaro, E., Nakamura, T., Umeda, H., \&~Iwamoto, K. 2001, \apj, 547, 988, arXiv:astro-ph/0009490v1 % % ADS reference. % Title: Can Differences in the Nickel Abundance % in Chandrasekhar-Mass Models Explain the Relation between % the Brightness and Decline Rate of Normal Type IA Supernovae? % Yes. % But more importantly, this is the paper which used giant steps surreptitiously. % But the light curve calculations were just mean opacity calculations. % Paolo claims speed-up factor of 10 with accuracy % of a few percent. But greater speed-ups might % be possible if one is willing to risk more error.
  438. \bibitem[McCall(1984)]{mccall1984} McCall, M. L. 1984, \mnras, 210, 829 % his line polarization theory paper. % He does think in terms of axisymmetric ellipsoidal supernova % models for polarization.
  439. \bibitem[McCall(1985)]{mccall1985} McCall, M. L. 1985, in Supernovae as Distance Indicators, ed.~N.~Bartel (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 48. % theory and results of line polarization: 83G Ia and 83N Ib. % The spectropolarimetry of 83N Ibis the first fairly % definite proof of SN asymmetry. The data was over % 3700--5200 A range taken on 1983jul18, one day after % V max as assumed from IUE FES band (Panagia unpublished) % by Branch. The most prominent polarization % feature was a polarization dip across an Fe II blend % flux emission feature (perhaps with an H\beta cutting % into it??). This feature showed a dip from 1.4 % to % 0.8 %. The position angle was constant (over the % line or over the whole spectropolarimetry is unclear in % the paper). Constant position angle suggests that % ISP is aligned orthogonal to axisymmetric intrinsic % supernova polarization p.a. Since alignment is improbable, % the ISP may be low. That the dip occurred across an % emission feature is what is expected of intrinsic % polarization: supports the idea that ISP is low. % Leda (Schl.) give E(B-V)_Gal=.07 and so by the Serkowski % Galactic empirical rule P_Max_Gal=.63 %. This is consistent % with much lower ISP. % Intrinsics continuum polarization of 1.4 % for the % ellipsoidal-like models suggests of order 50 % asymmetry. % Huge and unlikely if 83N is in the Ib's that are all alike. % Evidence for the jet model? % But the jet model would predict lots of line polarization % features that Marshall doesn't mention, but then the % data were never fully reduced or published.
  440. \bibitem[McCall(2001)]{mccall01} McCall, M. L. 2001, private communication % From mccall@aries.phys.yorku.ca Tue Jul 24 11:15:15 2001 % From: "Marshall L. McCall" % % Dear David, % Greetings from Toronto. Yes, I do remember you. Long time no see. % Glad to hear you are faring well. % % Funny you should ask about that spectrum. Craig Wheeler asked % me about it, too, a few years ago, I am afraid to say that I % haven't done anything more on it. % I recall I was going to try to put the spectrum on a flux scale, % but never got around to it. I just tried to find the % data on disk, but couldn't. However, I do have a 9-track tape % with the original data on it, even written in FITS format. % I am not sure if it is still readable, though. % % What I have is a rather thick file with data, plots, programs, % logs, etc. in it. Essentially, the spectropolarimetric analysis % was completed, but not fully checked. I also have some % broad-band polarimetry in B, V, and R taken at the same time % as the spectropolarimetry by Bobbie Vaile, who was at Siding % Spring at the same time. She was a graduate student at the time, % I don't think anyone in the world but me and her (and now you) % know about this. % Anyway, I was going to use the broad-band stuff as a check. % % I don't know what to do. It would take me an incredible amount % of time to get up to speed on this again. When would you need % this stuff? % % Best wishes, % Marshall
  441. \bibitem[McLaughlin(1963)]{mclaughlin1963} McLaughlin, D. B. 1963, PASP, 75, 133 % % ADS reference % The spectrum of the type I supernova of 1954 in NGC 4214. % McLaughlin identified them in 1963. % This is Dean B. McLaughlin: a much older namesake unrelated astronomer Dean E. McLaughlin.
  442. \bibitem[McQuarrie(1976)]{mcquarrie1976} McQuarrie, D. A. 1976, Statistical Mechanics (New York: Harper \& Row Publishers) % Has diffusion equation (p. 386) and fundamental solution in 1-d on p. 387. % The 3-d solution is on p. 456. % One of the very few books that have the 3-d solution.
  443. \bibitem[Meagher(1989)]{meagher1989} Meagher, R. E. 1989, Mortal Vision: The Wisdom of Euripides (New York: St.~Martin's Press) % Seems a good book for the layperson on Euripides. % Perhaps he's got everything nearly right. % There's been an awful lot written and some of it % pretty far-fetched it seems. % I kind of like Philip Vellacott's book, but maybe % some of his theses are not sustainable. % PA 3978 .M39 1989 at University of Oklahoma. % Literary book. History book. Poetry book.
  444. \bibitem[Meakin et al.(2010)]{meakin2010} Meakin, C. A, Sukhbold, T., \& Arnett, W. D. 2010, Proc.~High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics conference, Caltech, March 2010, special issue A\&SS, arXiv:1006.0513 %ADS reference. % Title: Presupernova Structure of Massive Stars % A good little starting review for modern stellar structure calculations.
  445. \bibitem[Meikle et al.(1996)]{meikle1996} Meikle, W. P. S., et al. 1996, MNRAS, 281, 263 % % ADS reference % Title: An early-time infrared and optical study of the Type IA supernovae SN 1994D and 1991T. % 20 odd coauthors. % The He I 10830 identification in NIR is discussed and the alternate of Mg II 10926.
  446. \bibitem[M\'endez(1990)]{mendez1990} M\'endez, M. 1990, private communication % The private communication of M\'endez about the ISP toward % SN 1987A which has never been % published. I trust it is all right.
  447. \bibitem[Mermin(1968)]{mermin1968} Mermin, N. D. 1968, Space and Time in Special Relativity (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company), (Mer) % A short book on special relativity for the layperson % and the bewildered physics teacher who usually gets along by % ``comfortable superficiality and mild dishonesty''.
  448. \bibitem[Metcalf et al.(2004)]{metcalf2004} Metcalf, M., Reid, J., \&~Cohen, M. 2004, Fortran 95/2003 Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press) (MRC) % Pretty good reference book. % Sometimes it drifts off into computer scientist babble.
  449. \bibitem[Metcalf \&~Charbonneau]{metcalf2002} Metcalf, T. S., \& Charbonneau, P. 2002, astro-ph/0208315 % genetic algorithms
  450. \citep[e.g.,][p.~411ff]{mihalas1978} \bibitem[Mihalas(1978)]{mihalas1978} Mihalas, D. 1978, Stellar Atmospheres, (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company) % The radiative transfer bible: now a bit dated.
  451. \bibitem[Mihalas(1980)]{mihalas1980} Mihalas, D. 1980, \apj, 237, 574 % comoving frame radiative transfer in spherical symmetry by % the difference method. % Paper VI on the CMF formalism: relativistic flows. % This paper gives the full spherical CMF equations % of transfer and treats some example problems % including the moving spherical grey problem.
  452. \bibitem[Mihalas \&~Mihalas(1984)]{mihalas1984} Mihalas, D., \&~Mihalas, B. W. 1984, Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics (Oxford: Oxford Univ.~Press) % the not-so New Testament of radiative transfer.
  453. \bibitem[Milne et al.(1999)]{milne1999} Milne, P. A., The, L.-S., \& Leising, M. D. 1999, ApJS, 124, 503 % % ADS reference. % Title: Positron Escape from Type IA Supernovae. % Positron escape and survival with radial B-field and trapping tangled B-field. % There is survival for 2000 days in either case. See p. 523. % Positron transport needed for t>=200 days.
  454. \bibitem[Milne et al.(2001)]{milne2001} Milne, P. A., The, L.-S., \& Leising, M. D. 2001, ApJ, 559, 1019 % % ADS reference. % Title: Late Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae % More on positron escape from Type Ia's. % It happens it seems. % After day 50 the V band seems to have about a constant % (25%) of the bolometric lumenosity and surves as a good % surrogate.
  455. \bibitem[Min et al.(2009)]{min2009} Min, M., Dullemond, C. P., Dominik, C., de Koter, A., \&~Hovenier, J. W. 2009, A\&A, 497, 155 % ADS reference. % Title: Radiative transfer in very optically thick circumstellar disks. % An astrophysical application of fleck1984's macrostep random monte carlo % (aka giantsteps).
  456. \bibitem[Mishra \& Molinaro(2021)]{mishra2021} Mishra, S., \& Molinaro, R. 2021, JQSRT, 270, arXiv:2009.13291 % arXiv:2009.13291 % Title: Physics Informed Neural Networks for Simulating Radiative Transfer.
  457. \bibitem[Misra et al.(2005)]{misra2005} Misra, K., Kamble, A. P., Bhattacharya, D., \& Sagar, R. MNRAS, 360, 662 % % ADS Reference % Title: Multiband optical photometry and bolometric light curve of the Type Ia supernova 2004S. % No spectra I guess. % Their Bmax 2004feb03.92 (JD 2453039.42 +/- 0.64).
  458. \bibitem[Moore \&~Merrill(1968)]{moore1968} Moore, C.~E., \&~Merrill, P.~W. 1968, in {NSRDS--NBS}~{23}, {Partial Grotrian Diagrams of Astrophysical Interest} (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office), http://www.nist.gov/srd/nsrds.htm % A handy reference for simple Grotrian diagrams. % There must be better ones, but it's the one I have. % NIST download site. % It's not clear if this work is considered public domain or under % copyright to the US government or one or both of the authors. % Also available as here % pdf or % postscript.
  459. \bibitem[Motz \&~Duveen(1977)]{motz1977} Motz, L., \&~Duveen, A. 1977, {Essentials of Astronomy} (New York: Columbia University Press) (Mo) % An old textbook, but it has some details % that are just hard to find elsewhere such % as on eclipse seasons on p. 128. % Mo-128

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  460. \bibitem[Nahar(1995)]{nahar1995} Nahar, S. 1995, A\&A, 293, 967 % ``Atomic Data from the Iron Project: VII. Radiative Dipole Transition % Probabilities for Fe II'' . % There is no astro-ph reference. % See p. 968 & 976 for the 769 measured energy levels by Johansson % but some are reported here by private communication to Sultana.
  461. \bibitem[Natta \& Beckwith(1986)]{natta1986} Natta, A., \&~Beckwith, S. 1986, A\&A, 158, 310 % % ADS reference. % Title: Brightness distribution for resonant line photons in spherical envelopes. % Monte-Carlo tests with some Sobolev remarks. % The Sobolev lack of diffusion in strong lines is discussed % on p.~320.
  462. \bibitem[Neugebauer(1969)]{neugebauer1969} Neugebauer, O. 1969, {\it The Exact Sciences in Antiquity} (New York: Dover) (Ne) % A short but good account of some facets of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, % and Greek mathematics and astronomy. A bit dated. % Otto Neugebauer (1899--1990) % Ne-??? % Ne-???
  463. \bibitem[Nicolson(1999)]{nicolson1999} Nicolson, I. 1999, Unfolding Our Universe (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) (Ni) Somewhat dated. As with all good intro astro books, there are some points he discusses that others evade. But overall it's pretty light. It's really a coffee table book rather than an intro astro text. % Ni-???
  464. \bibitem[Nisenson \&~Papaliolios(1999)]{nisenson1999} Nisenson, P., \&~Papaliolios, C. 1999, \apj, 518, L29, astro-ph/9904109 % The re-analysis of early speckle imagining of 87A % reveals two bright spots which may be opposite bipolar % jets moving at v/c of .8! The stops are on the % plane of the sky project, but if the analysis i % correct are 80 degrees shifted from the long axis % of the inner ejecta which is a difficulty if both % spots and long axis are to be explained by one pair % bipolar jets.
  465. \bibitem[NIST(2005)]{nist2005} NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 2005, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions with Relative Atomic Masses (Gaithersberg, Maryland: NIST), http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Compositions/index.html % Atomic Weights, etc.
  466. \bibitem[NIST(2006a)]{nist2006a} NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 2006, The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainties (Gaithersberg, Maryland: NIST), http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/ % CODATA 2002 fundamental constants. % All values ASCII.
  467. \bibitem[NIST(2006b)]{nist2006b} NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 2006, NIST Atomic Spectra Database Version 3.1.0 (Gaithersberg, Maryland: NIST), http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/ % 2006 was the last update and presumably that is version 3.1.0 % I've tried my best for a proper ApJ reference % A great resource for atomic levels and lines.
  468. \bibitem[NIST(2007)]{nist2007} NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 2007, NIST Atomic Spectra Database Version 3.1.1 (Gaithersberg, Maryland: NIST), http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/ % Online. % 2007march was the last update and presumably that is version 3.1.1. % I've tried my best for a proper ApJ reference % A great resource for atomic levels and lines. % Not a great resource for Grotrian diagrams. % There online diagram builder is clonky and for some ions: e.g., Co III. % Not yet a replacement for % Moore & Merrill (1968). % nomotok
  469. \bibitem[Nomoto et al.(1982)]{nomoto1982} Nomoto, K. 1982, \apj, 257, 780 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Accreting white dwarf models for type 1 supernovae. II - Off-center detonation supernovae. % He detonations on WDs. Both single that don't disrupt the stars and double where a carbon detonation % wave propagates inward. The ejecta is most % These objects have no observational counterpart.
  470. \bibitem[Nomoto et al.(1982)]{nomoto1982} Nomoto, K. 1991, private communication to Ruiz-Lapuente et al. (1992) % Nomoto et al.'s (1984) C8 turned into % delayed detonation in the outermost layers which were dominated by Ni-56. % That paper failed to mention the Ni-56, but this private communication to % Ruiz-Lapuente et al. (1992) % gave that fact out.
  471. \bibitem[Nomoto et al.(1990)]{nomoto1990} Nomoto, K., Filippenko, A. V., Shigeyama, T. 1990, A\&A, 240, L1 % % ADS Reference % The type IC supernova 1987M - Core collapse of a low-mass helium star in a binary system.
  472. \bibitem[Nomoto \& Kondo(1991)]{nomoto1991} Nomoto, K., \& Kondo, Y. 1991, \apj, 367, L19 % On WD collapse to neutron stars or explosions.
  473. \bibitem[Nomoto et al.(1976)]{nomoto1976} Nomoto, K., Sugimoto, D., \& Neo, S. 1976, Ap\&SS, 39, L37 % % ADS reference. % Title: Carbon deflagration supernova, an alternative to carbon detonation. % An ealier paper on the failure of carbon detonation in carbon-oxygen cores % and thus deflagration, but this is not WD but an extended star with a CO core.
  474. \bibitem[Nomoto et al.(1984)]{nomoto1984} Nomoto, K., Thielemann, F.-K., \&~Yokoi, K. 1984, \apj, 286, 644 % The original W7 paper. % Here the iron peak yield is .86 solar masses
  475. \bibitem[Nomoto et al.(1994)]{nomoto1994} Nomoto, K., Yamaoka, H., Shigeyama, T., Kumagai, S., \& Tsujimoto, T. 1994, in Supernovae: Session~LIV of the Les~Houches \'Ecole d'\'Et\'e de Physique Th\'eorique, ed.~S.~A.~Bludman, R.~Mochkovitch, \&~J.~Zinn-Justin (Amsterdam: North-Holland), 199 % Type I Supernovae and Evolution of Interacting Binaries. % On p. 219--220, they say Ia's would be dim without reheating, but % they don't say how dim. I think it is usually unobservably dim, but % no one seems to say. They are the explosion experts and so one % can trust them on adiabatic cooling.
  476. \bibitem[North(1994)]{north1994} North, J. 1994, The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology (New York: W.W. Norton \& Company), see Amazon entry for % A good history of all of astronomy by John North. % But the fact is that really the whole history can't be covered in one % book any more. One can do up to 1900 and then after that the subject % becomes just too different. % % I have to confess though that the students in my history of % science course at Vanderbilt (1995--1996) didn't like it as a % text even though it was comparatively cheap. Maybe it wasn't % pre-digested enough. But at some point students just have % start reading books for adults. % No-???
  477. \bibitem[Nugent et al.(1997)]{nugent1997} Nugent, P., Baron, E., Branch, D., Fisher, A., \&~Hauschildt, P. 1997 \apj, 485, 812 % % ADS reference. % Title: Synthetic Spectra of Hydrodynamic Models of Type IA Supernovae. % Helium-igniters are too blue to be real and their lines are wrong too.
  478. \bibitem[Nugent et al.(1995)]{nugent1995} Nugent, P., Phillips, M., Baron, E., Branch, D., \&~Hauschildt, P. 1995 \apj, 455, L147 % % ADS reference. % Title: Evidence for a Spectroscopic Sequence among Type 1a Supernovae. % The luminosity sequence reproduces the range of Ia's with > 8000 km/s mixed W7 composition % and v_e=900 km/s which is probably too steep. % In the last paragraph they concede the agreement with 91T would be improved by reducing IMEs, % and by implication increasing IPEs maybe.
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  494. \bibitem[Padel(2005)]{padel2005} Padel, R. 2005, Tigers in Red Weather (Erewhon: Little, Brown) % Wikipedia: Ruth Padel: poet, scholar, % travel writer. % The book is all about the fate of tigers. Well reviewed. % Travel book.
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  535. \bibitem[Quimby et al.(2006)]{quimby2006} Quimby, R., H\"oflich, P., Kannappan, S. J., Rykoff, E., Rujopakarn, W., Akerlof, C. W., Gerardy, C. L., \& Wheeler, J. C. 2006, ApJ, 636, 400 % Title: SN 2005cg: Explosion Physics and Circumstellar Interaction of a Normal Type Ia Supernova in % a Low-Luminosity Host. % % ADS refrence. % discovery on 2005jun01. % B max on 2005jun13.
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  548. \bibitem[R\"opke(2005)]{roepke2005} % \citep[e.g.,][]{roepke2005}, % Fritz Roepke R\"opke, F. K. 2005, A\&A, 432, 969 % AA reference % Title: Following multi-dimensional type Ia supernova explosion models to homologous expansion. % R\"opke's 3-d deflagration model Ia model c3_3d_256_10s. % Kozma et al. (2005) rule it out for ordinary Ia's % because of low-velocity carbon and oxygen: not enough stratification. % "Thus, for the derivation of synthetic light curves % and spectra from SN Ia models it is advisable to follow the % evolution of the explosion up to t 10 s." on p. 982 % See also Roepke & Hillebrant p 642 but not as explicit & https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...431..635R/abstract
  549. \bibitem[R\"opke(2007)]{roepke2007} R\"opke, F. K., Niemeyer, J. C. 2007, A\&A, 464, 683 % % ADS reference. % Fritz' delayed-detonation model. They make the transition to detonation when % and where the distributed deflagration regime starts. So there is no parameterization % in a sense, but just a guess at when and where the transition occurs.
  550. \bibitem[Ruiz-Lapuente et al.(1992)]{ruiz-lapuente1992} Ruiz-Lapuente, P., Cappellaro, E., Turatto, M., Gouiffes, C., Danziger, I. J., Della Valle,~M., \&~Lucy, L. B. 1992, ApJ, 387, L33 % % ADS reference. % Title: Modeling the iron-dominated spectra of the type IA supernova SN 1991T at premaximum. % approximate NLTE Fe III lines SN~1991T. % They did conclude that there was abundant outer IPEs % used the term ``sandwiched'' for the IMEs between outer IPEs and inner IPE core. % Maybe the referee gave them the word ``sandwich''. But maybe not. % They didn't thank the referee.
  551. \bibitem[Ruiz-Lapuente et al.(1993)]{ruiz-lapuente1993} Ruiz-Lapuente, P.,~\etal 1993, Nature, 365, 728 % D.J.~Jeffery, P.M.~Challis, A.V.~Filippenko, R.P.~Kirshner, % L.C.~Ho, B.P.~Schmidt, F.~S\'anchez, \&~R.~Canal, % the SN~1991bg nebular paper, ``A Change in the Type~Ia % Supernova Paradigm.'' There are 9 authors. ApJ allows 8 only. % I think we originally called it ``Paradigm-Busters''.
  552. \bibitem[Ruiz-Lapuente et al.(1995)]{ruiz-lapuente1995} Ruiz-Lapuente, P., Kirshner, R. P., Phillips, M. M., Challis, P. M., Schmidt, B. P., Filippenko, A. V., \&~Wheeler, J. C. 1995, \apj, 439, 60 % % ADS reference. % Late-time spectra and type IA supernova models: New clues from the Hubble Space Telescope. % Mg II 2798 in the nebular HST spectrum. 290 days post B-maximum. % On the nebular spectra of SN 1992a.
  553. % \citealt{rybicki1978} \bibitem[Rybicki \&~Hummer(1978)]{rybicki1978} Rybicki, G. B., \&~Hummer, D. G. 1978, \apj, 219, 654 % ADS reference. % Title: A generalization of the Sobolev method for flows with nonlocal radiative coupling. % a standard Sobolev method paper reference. % The treatment of radiative line coupling follows straightforwardly from this % paper. % Either George or David told me, the formalism had been worked out in 1969 or so % and they had just not got around to publishing it until later.

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  554. \bibitem[Saha et al.(2001)]{saha2001} Saha, A., Sandage, A., Thim, F., Labhardt, L., Tammann, G. A., Christensen, J., Panagia, N., \&~Macchetto, F. D. 2001, \apj, 551, 973 % Title: Cepheid Calibration of the Peak Brightness of Type IA Supernovae. X. SN 1991T in NGC 4527. % They find $D=14.1\pm0.8\,$Mpc for the host galaxy NGC 4527. % fisher1999 used D=16.4 Mpc and so scaling down from fisher1999's % 1.45 M_sun of Ni-56, one gets 0.96 which is high, but not extreme. % 8 coauthors: ApJ allows 8 to be named.
  555. \bibitem[Saio \&~Nomoto(2004)]{saio2004} Saio, H., \& Nomoto, K. 2004, \apj, 615, 444 % % ADS reference. % Title: Off-Center Carbon Ignition in Rapidly Rotating, Accreting Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs. % Merging WDs do not become Ia's, but get converted to O-Ne-Mg WD % and eventually collapse to a neutron star.
  556. \bibitem[Salvo et al.(2001)]{salvo2001} Salvo, M. E., Cappellaro, E., Mazzali, P. A., Benetti, S., Danziger, I. J., Patat, F., \& Turatto, M. MNRAS, 321, 254 % % ADS reference. % Title: The template type Ia supernova 1996X. % They say it's pretty normal. % Bmax from their own photometry is 1996apr18 (JD 2450191.5 +/- .5). % They present 16 spectra which turn into 17 on % (SN 1996X Ia) % through a duplication of day -1.
  557. \bibitem[Santillana(1955)]{santillana1955} Santillana, G. de 1955, The Crime of Galileo (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) % I own a reprint of this book published in 1962. % Certain aspects and attitudes of Giorgio de Santillana's book have dated % a bit. % I think Santillana sometimes spins Galileo's actions too favorably, % but he could be right---maybe his spin technique is dated too. % But Santillana covers main points of the Galileo's conflict with % the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. % No new tremendous evidence has come to light since. % Some of his conclusions have been nuanced slightly % differently by later authors, but it's not clear to % me that their takes are better. % For example, see Fantoli (1994) % who in many respects comes to the same conclusions, but with % different weightings. % Actually, a lot history writing of topics well covered % in the past is mostly rehash. Sometimes the rehash is % needed to get things a bit righter, but there is a point % of diminishing returns that may not have been reached by % Santillana, but maybe by now (i.e., year 2007). % History book. Biography book.
  558. \bibitem[Sasaki et al.(1994)]{sasaki1994} Sasaki, M., Kosugi, G., Ishigaki, T., Maemura, H., Aoki, K., \& Ohtani, H. 1994, PASJ, 46, L187 % % ADS reference. % Optical spectra of the supernova 1994I in M51 around the maximum light phase. % They say V maximum is around April 9.
  559. \bibitem[Sauer et al.(2006)]{saueri2006} Sauer, D. N., Hoffmann, T. L., \& Pauldrach, A. W. A. 2006, A\&A, 459, 229 % % ADS reference. % Title: Non-LTE models for synthetic spectra of type Ia supernovae/hot stars % with extremely extended atmospheres. % II. Improved lower boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the radiative transfer. % It's not clear what the future of this approach will be.
  560. \bibitem[Scalzo et al.(2010)]{Scalzo} Scalzo, R. A. 2010, \apj, 713, 1073 % 31 authors % ADS reference % Title: Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2007if: % First Total Mass Measurement of a Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass Progenitor. % Make some use of my super-Chan paper. % p. 1086 where they use semi-analytic models like mine is best reference.
  561. \bibitem[Schlegel et al.(1998)]{schlegel1998} Schlegel, D. J., Finkbeiner, D. P., \&~Davis, M. 1998, \apj, 500, 525 % ADS reference % Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds. % From which foreground reddenings can be derived. The Leda database has them for Galaxies.
  562. \bibitem[Schmidt et al.(1994)]{schmidt1994} Schmidt, B. P., Kirshner, R. P., Leibundgut, B., Wells, L. A., Porter, A. C., Ruiz-Lapuente, P., Challis, P., \& Filippenko, A. V. 1994, \apj, 434, 19L % % ADS reference. % SN 1991T: Reflections of past glory. % This is about the 91T light echo.
  563. \bibitem[Schmidt et al.(1998)]{schmidt1998} Schmidt, B. P., et al. 1998, \apj, 507, 46 % % ADS reference. % About 20 coauthors. % Title: The High-Z Supernova Search: Measuring Cosmic Deceleration and Global Curvature of the % Universe Using Type IA Supernovae. % One of the two discovery papers of the accelerating universe. The other was % Perlmutter et al. 1999.
  564. \bibitem[Schweitzer et al.(2000)]{schweitzer2000} Schweitzer, A., Hauschildt, P. H., \&~Baron, E. 2000, \apj, 541, 1004, astro-ph/0006049 % NLTE treatment of molecules with superlevels. % CO is used as an example.
  565. \bibitem[Schweitzer et al.(2003)]{schweitzer2000} Schweitzer, A., Hauschildt, P. H., Baron, E., \&~Allard, F. 2003, in Stellar Atmosphere Modeling, ASP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 288, ed.~Ivan Hubeny, Dimitri Mihalas, \&~Klaus Werner (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), 339 % No astro-ph reference. % ``Using Superlevels to Calculate Molecular NLTE Problems''. % NLTE treatment of molecules with superlevels. % CO and TiO are used as examples.
  566. % \citep[e.g.,][p.~10]{scott2018} % before advent of Lambda-CDM model \bibitem[Scott(2018)]{scott2018} Scott, D. 2018, arXiv:1804.01318 % Title: The Standard Model of Cosmology: A Skeptic's Guide % arXiv:1804.01318 % On p 10 gives 1995 as $\Lambda$-CDM was establishing itself.
  567. \bibitem[Scottoline(2007)]{scottoline2007} Scottoline, L. 2007, Daddy's Girl (New York: HarperCollins) % Fear and loathing at Penn State along with murder and mystery. % Well reviewed in the Washington Post.
  568. \bibitem[Seeds(1999)]{seeds1999} Seeds, M. A. 1999, Foundations of Astronomy (Belmount, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company) (Se) % Somewhat dated, but I'm familiar with it. As with all good % intro astro books, there are some points he discusses that others evade. % (Se-???)
  569. \bibitem[Seitenzahl et al.(2009)]{seitenzahl2009} Seitenzahl, I. R., Taubenberger, S., \& Sim, S. A. 2009, \mnras, 400, 531 % % ADS reference % Title: Late-time supernova light curves: the effect of internal conversion and Auger electrons % So they catch-up to Jeffery 1999 on quazi-exponential light curves. % I included the fast electrons and the X-rays. % But how did I treat the X-rays. % Apparently a separate grey radtran with different opacities. % But I failed to mention it the quasi-light curve paper explicitly anywhere. % I messed up again.
  570. \bibitem[Serkowski(1973)]{serkowski1973} Serkowski, K. 1973, in IAU Symposium 52, Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, ed.~J.~M.~Greenberg \&~H.~C.~van~de~Hulst (Dordrecht: Reidel), 145 % An e.g.-reference for the Serkowski empirical ISP law.
  571. \bibitem[Serway \&~Jewett(2008)]{serway2008} Serway, R. A., \&~Jewett, J. W., Jr. 2008, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 7th Edition (Belmont, California: Thomson) % Sort of the same as the others, but maybe not as good.
  572. \bibitem[Shapiro \&~Sutherland(1982)]{shapiro1982} Shapiro, P. R., \&~Sutherland, P. G. 1982, \apj, 263, 902 % Chandrasekhar polarization paper. % They wrap Chandrasekhar's plane-parallel electron scattering % polarizing atmospheres around axisymmetric ellipsoids % and calculate net polarization---which is very low except % for very high asymmetry.
  573. \bibitem[Shapiro \&~Teukolsky(1983)]{shapiro1983} Shapiro, S. L., \& Teukolsky, S. A. 1983, Black Holes, White Dwarfs, and Neutron Stars: The Physics of Compact Objects (New York: John Wiley \& Sons) (ST) % Shapiro & Teukolsky 1983, p. ???. % The now hoary Bible of compact objects. % But it was once young and frisky. I own a copy. % See also % Amazon: Shapiro & Teukolsky 1983.
  574. \bibitem[Shapiro et al.(1994)] Shawl, S. J., Robbins, R. R., & Jefferys W. H. 1994 Discovering Astronomy (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company) (SRJ) As with all good intro astro books, there are some points he discusses that others evade. It seems good on comparative planetology. % SRJ-???
  575. \bibitem[Shigeyama et al.(1994)]{shigeyama94} Shigeyama, T., Suzuki, T., Kumagai, S., Nomoto, K., Saio, H., \&~Yamaoka, H. 1994, ApJ, 420, 341 % Theoretical light curves for SN 1993J in M81: the IIb. % One interesting point: homologous expansion in there models % is not established until after day 40: very different from the % usual result and expectation. In a private communication % Shigeyama says he now thinks this result was probably a % numerical mistake.
  576. Shipman, J. T., Wilson, J. D., & Todd, A. W. 2002, An Introduction to Physical Science (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company) (SWT) It covers physics, chemistry, geology, meteorology. It is a useful supplement to an intro astro teachers intro astro books. % SWT-???
  577. \bibitem[Shu(1982)]{shu1982} Shu, F. 1982, The Physical Universe: an Introduction to Astronomy (Mill Valley, California: University Science Books) (Sh) % A standard physical astronomy text. My edition is % badly out of date now. % (Shu-???)
  578. \bibitem[Sim(2007)]{sim2007} Sim, S. A. 2007, MNRAS, 375, 154 % ADS reference. % Multi-dimensional simulations of radiative transfer in Type Ia supernovae . % See p. 2 for his use of the formal solution. % A 3-d Monte Carlo code for Ia's. Everyone's doing it. % This is method paper as of 2007.
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  580. \bibitem[Shore(2003)]{shore2003} Shore, S. N. 2003, The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics (Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.) % Seems a good, general astrophysics text.
  581. \bibitem[Smil(2003)]{smil2003} Smil, V. 2003, Energy at the Crossroads: Global Perspectives and Uncertainties (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press) % Science book. History book. % A very good book with strong views. % But the field of commercial energy changes quickly % and so some parts are beginning to date already.
  582. \bibitem[Smil(2006)]{smil2006} Smil, V. 2006, Energy: A Beginner's Guide (Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications) % Science book. History book. % A useful book with lots of information, but not to excessive depth.
  583. \bibitem[Smith(2007)]{smith2007} Smith, J. E. 2007, FDR (New York: Random House) % Maybe the best 1-volume biography of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. % Well reviewed in the Washington Post: % review. % Random House site. % History book.
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  585. \bibitem[Somervell(1965)]{Somervell1965} Somervell, D. C. 1965, English Thought in the Nineteenth Century (New York: David MacKay Company, Inc.) % I've read this several times. % It's about what people thought popularily rather than % about the subtle refinements of thinkers. % It was written in 1929, and so by an actual Victorian: % David Churchill Somervell (1885--1965). % So he knew stuff from the inside. % History book.
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  587. \bibitem[Squires(1968)]{squires(1968} Squires, G. L. 1968, Practical Physics (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company) % G.L. Squires , Gordon Leslie % https://share.trin.cam.ac.uk/sites/public/Alumni/obituaries/squires.pdf 1924--2010 % catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam031/2001025559.pdf first 8 pages of 4th edition ,2001 % I probably used 1st or 2nd edition by mcgraw-hill 1968, 1976 % https://www.amazon.co.uk/Practical-Physics-4ed-G-Squires/dp/0521779405/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 % in Lied QC33 .S68 1985 5th floor 3rd edition % QC20 .S68 5th floor 1st edition
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  592. \bibitem[Stewart(2007)]{stewart2007} Stewart, I. 2007, Why Beauty Is Truth: The History of Symmetry (New York: Basic Books) % A well reviewed intro book to mathematical and physical symmetry by % Ian Stewart who is a well known popular writer on math. % Nature review.
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  599. \bibitem[Tanaka(1991)]{tanak91} Tanaka, Y. 1991, in Supernovae: The Tenth Santa~Cruz Workshop in Astronomy and Astrophysics, ed. S.~E.~Woosley (New~York: \hbox{Springer-Verlag}), 269 % Ginga X-ray observations of 87A: showed the unexpected early % X-ray behavior
  600. \bibitem[Tasitsiomi(2006)]{tasitsiomi2006} Tasitsiomi, A. 2006, astro-ph/0601562 % ``On the transfer of resonant-line radiation in mesh simulations.'' % A photon-propagation reduction procedure using analytic distributions % of emergent packet behavior.
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  602. \bibitem[Thielemann et al.(1986)]{thielemann1986} Thielemann, F.-K., Nomoto, K., \&~Yokoi, K. A\&A, 158, 17 %ADS reference. % Explosive nucleosynthesis in carbon deflagration models of Type I supernovae. % The final W7 composition paper. % Table 5, is the update of Table 4 for W7 in the earlier paper. % I sum the iron-peak to be .79 solar masses. % This is less than the old W7 which had .86 solar masses of iron-peak
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  604. \bibitem[Thomas et al.(2009)]{thomas2009} Thomas, R. C., et al. 2009, BAAS, 41, 464 % 27 coauthors % ADS Reference % Title: Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernovae Observed by The Nearby Supernova Factory % SYNAPPS is Rollin's new parameterized sobolev code. % Well my projected code will be more general and have doodads.
  605. \bibitem[Thoren(1991)]{thoren1991} Thoren, V. E. 1991, The Lord of Uraniborg: A Biography of Tycho Brahe, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) % Victor E. Thoren has probably given the definitive Tycho biography.
  606. \bibitem[Thubron(2007)]{thubron2007} Thubron, C. 2007, Shadow of the Silk Road (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.) % Colin Thubron travels the ancient trade route. % Well reviewed by % % Jonathan Yardley in the Washington Post. % History book. Travel book.
  607. \bibitem[Tipler \& Mosca(2008)]{tipler2008} Tipler, P. A., \& Mosca, G. 2008, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th Edition (New York: W.H.~Freeman and Company) % The old standby of intro physics books.
  608. \bibitem[Tominaga et al.(2005)]{tominaga2005} Tominaga, N., et al. 2005, \apj, 633, L97 % % ADS Reference % about 25 coauthors % The Unique Type Ib Supernova 2005bf: A WN Star Explosion Model for Peculiar Light Curves and Spectra % A very long rise 2-maximum Ibc SN. % Just a letter.
  609. \bibitem[Toomer(1998)]{toomer1998} Toomer, G. J. (tr.~and ed.) 1998, Ptolemy's Almagest (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press) (To) % Ptolemy's masterpiece in modern English translation with an introduction.
  610. \bibitem[Tornamb\`e \&~Piersanti(2005)]{tornambe2005} Tornamb\`e, A., \& Piersanti, L. 2005, in ASP Conf. Ser. 342, 1604--2004: Supernovae as Cosmological Lighthouses, ed. M.~Turatto, S.~Benetti, L.~Zamperi, \& W.~Shea (San Francisco: ASP), 169 % Clues on Type Ia Supernova Progenitors. % They conclude the SD scenario doesn't work. % The DD scenario should work and with differential rotation give significantly super-chan SNe Ia. % The range in masses may lead to the lightcurve-width-luminosity relation. % All this is controversial.
  611. \bibitem[Toulmin \& Goodfield(1965)]{toulmin1965} Toulmin, S. & Goodfield, J. 1965, The Discovery of Time (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers) (Tou) % I've always thought this a very good book. It comes before the % days when all subjects were endlessy rehashed and books were % overwrought and given silly titles. Today this book would probably % be called something like The Penguin's Puzzle. % There are no penguins in the book, but I'm sure some obscure quote % would connect penguins. % It's about how humankind became aware of the true extent of time. % Not just yesterday, nor grandfather, nor dream time. % I find it quasi-endlessly re-readable. % Science book. History book. To-???
  612. \bibitem[Tsvetkov(1987)]{tsvetkov1987} Tsvetkov, D. Yu. 1987, Soviet Astron. Lett., 13, 376 % ADS Reference. % Light curves of type Ib supernova: SN 1984l in NGC 991
  613. \bibitem[Tuchman(1962)]{tuchman1962} Tuchman, B. W. 1962, The Guns of August (New York: The Macmillan Company) % The opening month of WWI or the Great War. % A famous book. A good read. Probably it all stands % up as history although we live in the age of rehash. % It's hard to feel the agony of hundreds of thousands % dead and wounded. % History book.
  614. \bibitem[Tueller et al.(1991)]{tueller91} Tueller, J., Barthelmy, S., Gehrels, N., Leventhal, M. MacCallum, C. J., \&~Teegarden, B. J. 1991, in Supernovae: The Tenth Santa~Cruz Workshop in Astronomy and Astrophysics, ed. S.~E.~Woosley (New~York: \hbox{Springer-Verlag}), 278 % Balloon gamma ray observations of 87A: showed the unexpected early % gamma ray behavior.
  615. \bibitem[Turatto(1995)]{turatto1995} Turatto, M. 1995, private communication % On the 1990jul28 spectrum of SN 1990N % Tue May 23 12:23:29 1995 % Subject: 90n % ``yes that spectrum is poor indeed (poor wheather). % the observers were Benetti and myself, telescope 182cm of Asiago, % spectrograph B&C, detector CCD, date 28/8 (of course).'' % At this point, I've no recollection of how I originally got the % spectrum. Presumably some Asiago person sent it to me on my request.
  616. \bibitem[Turatto et al.(1996)]{turatto1996} Turatto, M., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Danziger, I. J., Della Valle, M., Gouiffes, C., Mazzali, P. A., \&~Patat, F. 1996, MNRAS, 283, 1 % % ADS reference. % Title: The properties of the peculiar type IA supernova 1991bg. I. Analysis and discussion % of two years of observations. % They say the [Ca II] 7300 lines are the strongest in any Ia on p. 10--11. % I'm not sure they are seen in anything except the cools
  617. \bibitem[Turatto et al.(1998)]{turatto1998} Turatto, M., Piemonte, A., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Mazzali, P. A., Danziger, I. J., \& Patat, F. 1998, AJ, 116, 2431 % % ADS reference. % Title: A New Faint Type IA Supernova: SN 1997cn in NGC 5490. % David Branch calls it a cool.
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  619. \bibitem[Vacca \&~Leibundgut(1996)]{vacca1996} Vacca, W. D., \&~Leibundgut, B. 1996, \apjl, 471, L37 % The Rise Times and Bolometric Light Curve of SN 1994D: Constraints on Models of Type IA Supernovae % The optical bolometric light curve is found to have a maximum luminosity % of about 8.8 x 1042 x (D/13.7 Mpc)2 ergs s-1, % which is reached ~18 days after the explosion. In addition, the optical bolometric % light curve exhibits an % inflection, or "shoulder," about 25 days after maximum. This inflection corresponds % to the secondary maximum observed % in all filter light curves redder than B. The individual filter curves have rise times % similar to that of the optical % bolometric light curve; other Type Ia supernovae are found to have similar rise times. Our fits % indicate that the peak bolometric luminosity and the maxima in % the B, V, and R light curves all occur within a day of one another.
  620. \bibitem[van Haasteren(2009)]{van haasteren2009} van Haasteren, R. 2009, MNRAS, in submission % % ADS Reference. % Title: Bayesian evidence: can we beat MultiNest using traditional MCMC methods? % It depends. No universal optimum rule for Bayes's marginalization
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  622. % \citealt]{wagoner1991} \bibitem[Wagoner et al.(1991)]{wagoner1991} Wagoner, R. V., Perez, C. A, \& Vasu, M. 1991, ApJ, 377, 639 % % ADS reference. % Title: Continuum Opacity Produced by Spectral Lines in Supernovae and Similar Expansions % An expansion opacity formalism
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  624. \bibitem[Wang et al.(2003)]{wang2003} Wang, L., et al. 2003, \apj, 591, 1110 % % ADS reference. % Title: Spectropolarimetry of SN 2001el in NGC 1448: Asphericity of a Normal Type Ia Supernova. % 10 coauthors. % There is a high polarizaiton signal of 0.7 % after ISP correction on day -7. % It's position angle differs from the average position angle. % So an different asymmetry from the average.
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  631. \bibitem[Wang et al.(2001b)]{wang2001b} Wang, L. et al. 2001b, Nature, submitted % The inner ejecta (what speed??) is prolate with a 2/1 ratio! % But David tells me it has probably been rejected.
  632. \bibitem[Wang et al.(2003)]{wang2003} Wang, L., et al. 2003, \apj, 591, 1110 % % ADS Reference. % Title: Spectropolarimetry of SN 2001el in NGC 1448: Asphericity of a Normal Type Ia Supernova. % Ugh, but they go for blobs which may not be so bad. % 10 coauthors. % Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; H\366flich, Peter; Khokhlov, Alexei; Wheeler, J. Craig; Kasen, D.; % Nugent, Peter E.; Perlmutter, Saul; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter % ``Round up the usual suspects.''
  633. \bibitem[Ward & Brownlee(2003)]{ward2003} Ward, P. D., & Brownlee, D. 2003, The Life and Death of Planet Earth: How the New Science of Astrobiology Charts the Ultimate Fate of our World (New York : Times Books) (WB) % Popular account of the fate of the Earth. % But what happens to humankind is not discussed. % Something must happen too us: extinction or transcendence. % (WB-???)
  634. \bibitem[Webbink(1984)]{webbink1984} Webbink, R. F. 1984, \apj, 277, 355 % First paper? on merging double-degenerate SN Ia with a WD with an extended envelope. % It seems to be first.
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  637. \bibitem[Weiler et al.(1986)]{weiler1986} Weiler, K. W., Sramek, R. A., Panagia, N., van der Hulst, J. M., \&~Salvati, M. 1986, \apj, 301, 790 % Radio supernovae. % SN 1979C and SN 1980K get a discussion.
  638. \bibitem[Weinberg(1977)]{weinberg1977} Weinberg, S., 1977, The First Three Minutes (New York: Basic Books) % A classic popular science book. If I knew it better than I do, I'd % know a lot. % Science book.
  639. \bibitem[Wells et al.(1994)]{wells1994} Wells, L. A., et al. 1994, AJ, 108, 2233 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Type IA supernova 1989B in NGC 3627 (M66). % 43 coauthors including Neil Degrasse Tyson. % Extensive photometry and spectroscopy.
  640. \bibitem[Wheeler \&~Benetti(2000)]{wheeler2000} Wheeler, J. C., \&~Benetti, S. 2000, in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, 4th Edition, ed.~A.~N.~Cox (New York: Springer-Verlag; AIP), 451
  641. \bibitem[Wheeler et al.(2002)]{wheeler2002} Wheeler, J. C., Meier, D. L., \& Wilson, J. R. 2002, ApJ, 568, 807 % Their paper on the prospects for bipolar jets.
  642. \bibitem[Wheeler et al.(1993)]{wheeler1993} Wheeler, J. C., et al. 1993, \apj, 417, L71 % Title: Early observations of SN 1993J in M81 at McDonald Observatory. % There are 13 coauthors going Wheeler, Barker, Benjamin, etc. % Interstellar Na I lines to SN 1993J from -140 to 134 km/s.
  643. \bibitem[Wiener \&~Hopf(1931)]{wiener1931} Wiener, N., \&~Hopf, E. 1931, Berliner Ber.~Math.~Phys.~Klasse, p.~696 % They give the exact formula for the gray atmosphere limb-darkening % law for the 1st time according to \cite{placzek1947}, but not. % \citet{chandrasekhar1944}. I'll trust Placzek.
  644. \bibitem[Wiese et al.(1966)]{wiese1966} Wiese, W. L., Smith, M. W., \&~Glennon, B. M. 1966, in {NSRDS--NBS}~{4}, {Atomic Transition Probabilities: Vol.~I---Hydrogen through Neon} (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office) % H through Ne line data
  645. \bibitem[Wiese et al.(1969)]{wiese1969} Wiese, W. L., Smith, M. W., \&~Miles, B. M. 1969, in {NSRDS--NBS}~{22}, {Atomic Transition Probabilities: Vol.~2---Sodium through Calcium} (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office) % Na through Ca line data
  646. \bibitem[Wikipedia contributors(2006)]{wikipedia2006a} Wikipedia contributors 2006, in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Zeno's Paradoxes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeno's\_paradoxes % Zeno's paradoxes about Achilles and the tortoise and the arrow, etc.
  647. \bibitem[Wikipedia contributors(2006)]{wikipedia2006b} Wikipedia contributors 2006, in Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Heat Equation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat\_equation % A good reference for the burst solution of the diffusion equation.
  648. \bibitem[Wolfson \& Pasachoff(1990)]{wolfson1990} Wolfson, R., \&~Pasachoff, J. M. 1990, Physics: Extended with Modern Physics (London: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education) % One of the better intro books at least for instructors
  649. \bibitem[Woosley(1991)]{woosley1991} Woosley, S. E. 1991, in Gamma-Ray Line Astrophysics, ed.~P.~Durouchoux \&~N.~Prantzos (Paris: American Institute of Physics), 270 % The reference for model DD4. % I can't remember this paper at all.
  650. \bibitem[Woosley(1992)]{woosley1992} Woosley, S. E. 1992, private communication % Given to {branch1992} Branch, D. 1992, \apj, 392, 35 % Ni-56 in SN Ia. % The alpha factor for the Arnett law. % 50-50 CO to Ni-56 yields $1.55\,{\rm foe/M_{\odots}}$ (p. 37). % or 7.8d17 erg/g. % CO to Si-28 yields 76 % as much (p. 37). % It must exist in the literature somewhere too. % Alas this reference is under the not to be cited category. % In Les Houches Woosley gives 7.3d17 for 30-70 CO.
  651. \bibitem[Woosley et al.(2007)]{woosley2007} Woosley, S. E., Kasen, D., Blinnikov, S., \& Sorokina, E. 2007, \apj, 662, 487 % astro-ph/0609562 % ADS reference. % Title: Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. % In press as of 2007apr18 from apj website. Still only in press on 2007may25. % Light curves for 130 parameterized 1-d SN Ia models. % They find some models conform to the peak-luminosity-width relation. % Figures 4 and 5 illustrate the approximate exponential nature of SN Ia explosion models.
  652. \bibitem[Woosley et al.(1987)]{woosley1987} Woosley, S. E., Pinto, P. A., Martin, P. G., \&~Weaver, T. A. 1987, \apj, 318, 664 % Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud - The explosion of an % approximately 20 solar mass star which has experienced mass loss? % Invented term Type IIb on p. 669.
  653. \bibitem[Woosley et al.(1986)]{woosley1986} Woosley, S. E., Taam, R. E., \&~Weaver, T. A. 1986, \apj, 301, 601 % % ADS reference. % Title: Models for Type I supernova. I - Detonations in white dwarfs % Surface helium detonations that leave remnants. % The ejecta are pretty much all N-56 with He at the 10 % level by mass and traces of other stuff. % So these are not Ia's or anything we know.
  654. \bibitem[Woosley \&~Weaver(1986b)]{woosley1986b} Woosley, S. E., \&~Weaver, T. A. 1994, in IAU Colloq. 89, Radiation Hydrodynamics in Stars and Compact Objects, ed.~D.~Mihalas, \& H.-H. A. Winkler (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 91 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Physics of Supernovae. % Not available online. % Model 3 is a precursor delayed-detonation model according to % Ruiz-Lapuente et al..
  655. \bibitem[Woosley \&~Weaver(1994)]{woosley1994} Woosley, S. E., \&~Weaver, T. A. 1994, in Supernovae: Session~LIV of the Les~Houches \'Ecole d'\'Et\'e de Physique Th\'eorique, ed.~S.~A.~Bludman, R.~Mochkovitch, \&~J.~Zinn-Justin (Amsterdam: North-Holland), 63 % Les Houches % supernovae, nucleosynthesis, massive stars % II, Ib/c's, Ia's, model DD4.
  656. \bibitem[Woosley \& Weaver(1994)]{weaver1994b} Woosley, S. E., \&~Weaver, T. A. 1994, \apj, 423, 371 % % ADS reference. % Title: Sub-Chandrasekhar mass models for Type IA supernovae. % Double detonations with He detonation ignition. % p. 376 shows they just don't have high enough velocity IMEs. % Nugent (1997) ruled them out with PHOENIX calculations.

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  657. \bibitem[Yamaoka et al.(1992)]{yamaoka1992} Yamaoka, H., Nomoto, K., Shigeyama, T., \& Thielemann, F.-K. 1992, \apj, 393, L55 % % ADS reference. % Title: Late detonation models for the type IA supernovae SN 1991T and SN 1990N. % This models are very delayed-detonation models that produce the sandwich. IPE core, % IME intermediate layer, IPE outer layer dominated by Ni-56 with another IME layer above % depending on the parameters. % Depending on the parameters one can get all the outside at Ni-56 with mass fraction He-4 over % 10 %. % They were invented probably in response to Jeffery et al. (1992).
  658. \bibitem[Yoon(2006)]{yoon2006} Yoon, S.-C. 2006, private communication % Yoon confirms that the Chan mass of \citet{yoon2005} was calculated with Chan's constants % for the EOS, his grav constant, his definition of mue=2, and the modern solar mass. % This is how they got M_ch=1.436 M_sun.
  659. \bibitem[Yoon \&~Langer(2005)]{yoon2005} Yoon, S.-C., \&~Langer, N. 2005, A\&A, 435, 967 % On the evolution of rapidly rotating massive white dwarfs toward supernovae or collapses. % On p. 977 they give a figure of binding energy for massive rotating WDs. % They also give fitting formula for those binding energies.
  660. \bibitem[Yoon, Podsiadlowski, \&~Rosswog(2007)]{yoon2007} Yoon, S.-C., Podsiadlowski, Ph., \&~Rosswog, S. 2007, MNRAS, 380, 933 %ADS reference % Remnant evolution after a carbon-oxygen white dwarf merger % They conclude double degenerate mergers may not do accretion induced collapses (AIC), % but may become SN Ia and even superchan ones, but suggest 1.5 M_Sun might % be more the upper limit rather than 2 M_Sun as one seems to need for SN 2003fg. % But there might be a narrow channel for 03fg-likes.
  661. \bibitem[Yoshii et al.(2003)]{yoshi2003} Yoshii, Y., et al. 2003, \apj, 592, 467 % % ADS reference. % Title: The Optical/Near-Infrared Light Curves of SN 2002ap for the First 140 Days after Discovery % 14 coauthors % A Ic hypernova without a gamma-ray burst, but weakish hypernova. % And it may have had a jet.
  662. \bibitem[Yuan et al.(2007a)]{yuan2007a} Yuan, R. F., et al. 2007a, The Astronomer's Telegram, \#1212 % ADS reference. % Title: A second example of a Ia supernova associated with a super- Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf % More than 8 coauthors. % SN 2007if which is not given in the telegram, but is % in ADS reference which is % just an abstract.
  663. \bibitem[Yuan et al.(2007b)]{yuan2007b} Yuan, R. F., et al. 2007b, AAS Meeting Abstracts, 211, \#105.05 % ADS reference. % Title: The ROTSE Supernova Verification Project (RSVP): Status and Early Discoveries % 9 coauthors. % Among these, SN 2007if is a particularly interesting example of an apparent % SN Ia involving the destruction of a super-Chandrasekhar mass system. Its % spectrum closely matches that of SN 2003fg which was the first such case % that has been observed. Our photometry data show a lightcurve that is % a factor of 2 overluminous for a SN Ia, consistent with this interpretation.

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  664. \bibitem[Zeilik(1994)]{zeilik1994} Zeilik, M. 1994, Astronomy: The Evolving Universe, 7th edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) (Ze1994) % (Ze1994-???)
  665. \bibitem[Zeilik(2002)]{zeilik2002} Zeilik, M. 2002, Astronomy: The Evolving Universe, 9th edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (Ze2002) % The material seems watered down from earlier editions, but % its all full of the new pedagogy. % (Ze2002-???)
  666. \bibitem[Zurek(2003)]{zurek2003} Zurek, W. H. 2003, arXiv:quant-ph/0306072v1 % Qant-ph reference. % Title: Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical -- REVISITED % A popular review of the status of decoherence theory as of 2003, before % envariance got coined. % History of decoherence started in circa 1970 with Zeh.
  667. \bibitem[Zurek(2005)]{zurek2005} Zurek, W. H. 2005, Phys. Rev. A 71, 052105, arXiv:quant-ph/0405161v2 % the 052105 is not a page number but an article number, but it seems % the official reference. % Qant-ph reference. % Title: Probabilities from Entanglement, Born's Rule from Envariance
  668. \bibitem[Zurek(2009)]{zurek2009} Zurek, W. H. 2009, Nature Physics, 5, 181, arXiv:0903.5082v1 % Qant-ph reference. % Title: Quantum Darwinism